Granitoids of the Ergelyakh Intrusion-Related Gold–Bismuth Deposit (Kular-Nera Slate Belt, Northeast Russia): Petrology, Physicochemical Parameters of Formation, and Ore Potential
This paper describes features of petrographic and chemical compositions and isotopic dating of the Ergelyakh and Sokh plutons, located within the Kular-Nera slate belt, Verkhoyansk-Kolyma folded region (VKFR), Northeast Russia. Intrusion of the massifs took place approximately 145–150 million years ago. Different isotopic systems on the whole rock samples and mineral separates record at least two stages of later tectono-magmatic activity 130–120 and 110–100 million years ago. Granitoid magmas for the Ergelyakh and Sokh plutons were formed at high temperatures (950–1060 °C) within the amphibolitic lower crust of an island arc setting. The ages of crustal protoliths for granitoids of the Ergelyakh intrusion-related gold–bismuth deposit, calculated on Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd two-stage models, are 1109–1383 and 1199–1322 million years, respectively. Formation of the Ergelyakh and Sokh plutons took place within a significant temperature interval (<450 to 901 °C) and, with regard to the superposition of later events, lasted for a long time. During the cooling process of granitoid melts, at the time of biotite crystallization in both massifs, a significant increase of oxygen fugacity was registered. The ore potential of granitoids of both massifs seems to be similar, but due to some differences in the physicochemical parameters of their formation (redox conditions), it was partially realized only within the Ergelyakh massif with the generation of several minor intrusion-related gold–bismuth deposits. Granitoid melts of the Ergelyakh massif were formed in relatively heterogeneous and oxidizing conditions (∆Ni–NiO = +3.26 to –3.60). Granitoid melts for the Sokh massif (∆Ni–NiO = –2.88 to –9.27) were formed in reducing conditions.