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Association between fat mass through adolescence and arterial stiffness: a population-based study from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

Published on May 1, 2019in The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
· DOI :10.1016/S2352-4642(19)30105-1
Frida Dangardt2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UCL: University College London),
Marietta Charakida25
Estimated H-index: 25
(UCL: University College London)
+ 11 AuthorsJohn Deanfield101
Estimated H-index: 101
(UCL: University College London)
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Abstract
Summary Background The link between adiposity, metabolic abnormalities, and arterial disease progression in children and adolescents remains poorly defined. We aimed to assess whether persistent high adiposity levels are associated with increased arterial stiffness in adolescence and any mediation effects by common metabolic risk factors. Methods We included participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) who had detailed adiposity measurements between the ages 9–17 years and arterial stiffness (carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity [PWV]) measured at age 17 years. Body-mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio were calculated from weight, height, and waist circumference measurements whereas fat mass was assessed using repeated dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans. We used total and trunk fat mass indices (FMIs) to classify participants as normal ( 75th percentile) FMI. We classified participants as being metabolically unhealthy if they had three or more of the following risk factors: high levels of systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, or glucose (all >75th percentile) or low levels of high-density lipoprotein ( Findings We studied 3423 participants (1866 [54·5%] female and 1557 [45·5%] male). Total fat mass was positively associated with PWV at age 17 years (0·004 m/s per kg, 95% CI 0·001–0·006; p=0·0081). Persistently high total FMI and trunk FMI between ages 9 and 17 years were related to greater PWV (0·15 m/s per kg/m 2 , 0·05–0·24; p=0·0044 and 0·15 m/s per kg/m 2 , 0·06–0·25; p=0·0021) compared with lower FMI. Metabolic abnormalities amplified the adverse effect of high total FMI on arterial stiffness (PWV 6·0 m/s [95% CI 5·9–6·0] for metabolically healthy participants and 6·2 m/s [5·9–6·4] for metabolically unhealthy participants). Participants who restored normal total FMI in adolescence (PWV 5·8 m/s [5·7–5·9] for metabolically healthy and 5·9 m/s [5·6–6·1] for metabolically unhealthy) had comparable PWV to those who had normal FMI throughout (5·7 m/s [5·7–5·8] for metabolically healthy and 5·9 m/s [5·8–5·9] for metabolically unhealthy). Interpretation Persistently high fat mass during adolescence was associated with greater arterial stiffness and was further aggravated by an unfavourable metabolic profile. Reverting to normal FMI in adolescence was associated with normal PWV, suggesting adolescence as an important period for interventions to tackle obesity in the young to maximise long-term vascular health. Funding UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, British Heart Foundation, and AFA Insurances
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References30
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Published on Sep 26, 2018in International Journal of Obesity4.51
Gilad Twig22
Estimated H-index: 22
(TAU: Tel Aviv University),
Brian Reichman34
Estimated H-index: 34
(TAU: Tel Aviv University)
+ 8 AuthorsTarif Bader1
Estimated H-index: 1
(HUJI: Hebrew University of Jerusalem)
Severe obesity is rising among adolescents, but data on the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities among this group are limited. We assessed the secular trend of severe obesity and its association with major cardio-metabolic morbidities. A total of 2,785,227 Israeli adolescents (aged 17.2 ± 0.5 years) who underwent a pre-recruitment medical examination including routine measurements of weight, height and blood pressure between 1967 and 2015 were included. In all, 230,639 adolescents with abnormal...
Published on Dec 1, 2018in BMC Medicine8.29
Stefano Masi11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UCL: University College London),
Georgios Georgiopoulos13
Estimated H-index: 13
(UoA: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)
+ 8 AuthorsRebecca Hardy71
Estimated H-index: 71
Background The relationship between long-term exposure to whole body or central obesity and cognitive function, as well as its potential determinants, remain controversial. In this study, we assessed (1) the potential impact of 30 years exposure to different patterns of whole body and central adiposity on cognitive function at 60–64 years, (2) whether trajectories of central adiposity can provide additional information on later cognitive function compared to trajectories of whole body adiposity,...
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Journal of the American College of Cardiology18.64
Joshua A. Bell14
Estimated H-index: 14
(UoB: University of Bristol),
David Carslake6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UoB: University of Bristol)
+ 6 AuthorsGeorge Davey-Smith177
Estimated H-index: 177
(UoB: University of Bristol)
Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI) is criticized for not distinguishing fat from lean mass and ignoring fat distribution, leaving its ability to detect health effects unclear. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare BMI with total and regional fat indexes from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in their associations with cardiometabolic traits. Duration of exposure to and change in each index across adolescence were examined in relation to detailed traits in young adulthood. Methods...
Published on Jun 21, 2018in European Heart Journal23.24
Marie-Jeanne Buscot3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UTAS: University of Tasmania),
Russell Thomson27
Estimated H-index: 27
(USYD: University of Sydney)
+ 7 AuthorsCostan G. Magnussen32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UTAS: University of Tasmania)
Aims: The relationship between life-course body mass index (BMI) trajectories and adult risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is poorly described. In a longitudinal cohort, we describe BMI trajectories from early childhood to adulthood and investigate their association with CVD risk factors [Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), high-risk lipid levels, hypertension, and high carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT)] in adulthood (34-49 years). Methods and results: Six discrete long-term BMI trajectories...
Published on Jul 1, 2016in European Heart Journal23.24
Børge G. Nordestgaard115
Estimated H-index: 115
(Copenhagen University Hospital),
Anne Langsted15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Copenhagen University Hospital)
+ 18 AuthorsJan Borén64
Estimated H-index: 64
(Sahlgrenska University Hospital)
Aims To critically evaluate the clinical implications of the use of non-fasting rather than fasting lipid profiles and to provide guidance for the laboratory reporting of abnormal non-fasting or fasting lipid profiles. Methods and results Extensive observational data, in which random non-fasting lipid profiles have been compared with those determined under fasting conditions, indicate that the maximal mean changes at 1–6 h after habitual meals are not clinically significant [+0.3 mmol/L (26 mg/d...
Published on Jun 2, 2015in European Heart Journal23.24
Julian Ayer15
Estimated H-index: 15
(USYD: University of Sydney),
Marietta Charakida25
Estimated H-index: 25
(UCL: University College London)
+ 1 AuthorsDavid S. Celermajer87
Estimated H-index: 87
(USYD: University of Sydney)
In a recent report, the worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity was estimated to have increased by 47% between 1980 and 2013. As a result, substantial concerns have been raised about the future burden of cardiovascular (CV) disease that could ensue. The purpose of this review is to summarize and interpret (i) the evidence linking early life obesity with adverse changes in CV structure and function in childhood, (ii) the lifetime risk for CV disease resulting from obesity in childhood, and (iii...
Published on Dec 1, 2014in Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders5.52
Patrick Mathieu46
Estimated H-index: 46
,
Marie-Chloé Boulanger17
Estimated H-index: 17
,
Jean-Pierre Després110
Estimated H-index: 110
Worldwide, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of mortality. While in many westernized societies there has been a decrease prevalence of smoking and that a special emphasis has been put on the urgency to control the, so called, classical risk factors, it is more and more recognized that there remains a residual risk, which contributes to the development of CVDs. Imaging studies conducted over two decades have highlighted that the accumulation of ectopic visceral fat is associated ...
Published on Aug 1, 2014in The Lancet59.10
Marie Ng27
Estimated H-index: 27
,
Tom P. Fleming42
Estimated H-index: 42
+ 137 AuthorsSemaw Ferede Abera35
Estimated H-index: 35
(College of Health Sciences, Bahrain)
Summary Background In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate th...
Published on Nov 11, 2013in PLOS ONE2.78
Katie Goodwin2
Estimated H-index: 2
(U of T: University of Toronto),
Catriona Syme13
Estimated H-index: 13
(U of T: University of Toronto)
+ 7 AuthorsZdenka Pausova41
Estimated H-index: 41
(U of T: University of Toronto)
Objective : Visceral fat (VF) increases cardiometabolic risk more than fat stored subcutaneously. Here, we investigated how well routine clinical measures of adiposity, namely body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (waist), predict VF and subcutaneous fat (SF) in a large population-based sample of adolescents. As body-fat distribution differs between males and females, we performed these analyses separately in each sex. Design and Methods : VF and SF were measured by magnetic resonance im...
Published on Jun 1, 2013in Hypertension7.02
Ben Corden3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Niall G. Keenan13
Estimated H-index: 13
+ 7 AuthorsDeclan P. O’Regan12
Estimated H-index: 12
Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, but the effect of body composition on vascular aging and arterial stiffness remains uncertain. We investigated relationships among body composition, blood pressure, age, and aortic pulse wave velocity in healthy individuals. Pulse wave velocity in the thoracic aorta, an indicator of central arterial stiffness, was measured in 221 volunteers (range, 18–72 years; mean, 40.3±13 years) who had no history of cardiovascular disease using card...
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