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Rice–wheat cropping systems in South Asia: issues, options and opportunities

Published on Jan 1, 2019in Crop & Pasture Science1.33
· DOI :10.1071/CP18383
Ahmad Nawaz9
Estimated H-index: 9
(H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad),
Muhammad Farooq37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Sultan Qaboos University)
+ 2 AuthorsRattan Lal113
Estimated H-index: 113
(OSU: Ohio State University)
Cite
Abstract
The rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system is the largest agricultural production system worldwide, and is practised on 24 Mha in Asia. Many factors have threatened the long-term sustainability of conventional rice–wheat cropping systems, including degradation of soil health, water scarcity, labour/energy crises, nutrient imbalances, low soil organic matter contents, complex weed and insect flora, the emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds, and greenhouse-gas emissions. Options for improving the yield and sustainability of the rice–wheat cropping system include the use of resource-conservation technologies such as no-till wheat, laser-assisted land levelling, and direct-seeded aerobic rice. However, these technologies are site- and situation-specific; for example, direct-seeded aerobic rice is successful on heavy-textured soils but not sandy soils. Other useful strategies include seed priming, carbon trading and payment, the inclusion of legumes, and eco-friendly and biological methods of weed control. Irrigation based on soil matric potential using tensiometers can be useful for saving surplus water in direct-seeded, aerobic rice. These options and strategies will contribute to resolving water scarcity, saving labour and energy resources, reducing greenhouse-gas emissions, increasing soil organic matter contents, and improving the soil-quality index. Seed priming with various substances that supplement osmotic pressure (osmotica) is a viable option for addressing poor stand establishment in conservation rice–wheat cropping systems and for increasing crop yields. To strengthen the campaign for using resource-conservation technologies in rice–wheat cropping systems, carbon-payment schemes could be introduced and machinery should be offered at affordable prices. The persistent issue of burning crop residues could be resolved by incorporating these residues into biogas/ethanol and biochar production. Because rice and wheat are staple foods in South Asia, agronomic biofortification is a useful option for enhancing micronutrient contents in grains to help to reduce malnutrition.
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  • Citations (1)
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References296
Newest
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Rice3.51
Caixia Zhang5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Rice University),
Guangyan Li2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Rice University)
+ 7 AuthorsGuanfu Fu9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Rice University)
Background Pollen tube elongation in the pistil is a key step for pollination success in plants, and auxins play an important role in this process. However, the function of auxins in pollen tube elongation in the pistil of rice under heat stress has seldom been previously reported.
Published on Nov 1, 2018in Soil & Tillage Research4.67
Md. Khairul Alam4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
R.W. Bell29
Estimated H-index: 29
+ 1 AuthorsMohammed Abdul Kader7
Estimated H-index: 7
The adoption of conservation agriculture (CA) in the intensive triple-cropping, rice-based systems of the Eastern Gangetic Plain (EGP) alters the dynamics of carbon (C) in the soil, but the nature of these changes is poorly understood. Our aim was to determine whether CA in these systems involving non-puddled transplanting of wetland rice and strip planting of dryland crops plus increased residue retention would increase the C storage in soils relative to conventional crop establishment practice...
Published on Oct 1, 2018in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture2.42
Abdul Rehman13
Estimated H-index: 13
(H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad),
Muhammad Farooq15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Sultan Qaboos University)
+ 4 AuthorsAman Ullah3
Estimated H-index: 3
(H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad)
Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms and its deficiency is a major issue of malnutrition in humans. This study was carried out to characterize 28 wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential, genetic diversity and relatedness.; Results: There was low genetic differentiation among the tested genotypes. However, they differed greatly in yield-related traits, grain mineral (Zn, calcium (Ca) and protein) concentrations and Zn bioavailability. Zinc application in...
Published on Jul 1, 2018in Field Crops Research3.87
Manpreet Singh9
Estimated H-index: 9
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University),
Makhan S. Bhullar6
Estimated H-index: 6
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University),
Gurjeet Gill26
Estimated H-index: 26
(University of Adelaide)
Abstract Dry-seeded rice (DSR) grown with alternate wetting and drying water management (AWD) has recently been introduced in northwest India as an alternative to conventional puddled hand-transplanted rice which is labour, water and energy intensive. The aerobic seedbed of DSR can be extremely susceptible to invasion by diverse weed flora, and if weeds are not controlled effectively, yield losses can be very high. This study was undertaken to investigate the impacts of stale seedbed techniques ...
Published on Jun 1, 2018in Agronomy for Sustainable Development4.26
Atique-ur-Rehman7
Estimated H-index: 7
(H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad),
Muhammad Farooq15
Estimated H-index: 15
+ 5 AuthorsKadambot H. M. Siddique48
Estimated H-index: 48
(UWA: University of Western Australia)
Half of the world’s population—more than 3.5 billion people—depend on rice for more than 20% of their daily energy requirements. Rice productivity is under threat for several reasons, particularly the deficiency of micronutrients, such as boron (B). Most rice-based cropping systems, including rice–wheat, are facing B deficiency as they are often practiced on high pH and alkaline soils with low B contents, low soil organic matter, and inadequate use of B fertilizer, which restricts the availabili...
Published on May 29, 2018
Ajay Singh1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
D. P. Nandal1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsPriti Malik1
Estimated H-index: 1
In the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is taken by conventional tilled puddled transplanted (CT-PTR) method. CT-PTR requires a lot of water (2000-2500 mm) which comes mainly from groundwater. Due to declining water table and changing climate, the sustainability of CT-PTR rice is under immense pressure. The alternative to CT-PTR could be direct seeded rice (DSR) which requires less water, labor, initial cost and energy than CT-PTR. But direct seeded rice is heavily inf...
Published on May 1, 2018in European Journal of Agronomy3.38
M. Jahangir Alam1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute),
E. Humphreys16
Estimated H-index: 16
(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)
+ 1 AuthorsSudhir-Yadav6
Estimated H-index: 6
(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)
Abstract In the High Ganges River Floodplain of Bangladesh, rice is normally established by puddling and transplanting. This is a costly practice in terms of tillage, labour and irrigation requirement. Dry seeding of rice has the potential to reduce these costs and facilitate timely crop establishment. However, the performance of dry seeded rice (DSR) in other parts of South Asia has been variable in comparison with that of puddled transplanted rice (PTR). Therefore, a four-year replicated exper...
Published on Apr 1, 2018in Field Crops Research3.87
Km Choudhary2
Estimated H-index: 2
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
H.S. Jat6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
+ 6 AuthorsM.L. Jat23
Estimated H-index: 23
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
Abstract Serious water deficits, diminishing profitability and deteriorating natural resources are threatening agricultural sustainability in many regions of South Asia. High water input and low water productivity of conventional irrigated rice–wheat (RW) systems has led to the depletion of surface water and ground waters in northwest India. Conservation agriculture (CA) practices with precision irrigation management and replacing rice with low water requiring maize crop may help to achieve sust...
Published on Mar 21, 2018in Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science1.68
H.S. Jat6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
Ashim Datta4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Central Soil Salinity Research Institute)
+ 10 AuthorsM.K. Gathala17
Estimated H-index: 17
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
ABSTRACTSoil quality degradation associated with resources scarcity is the major concern for the sustainability of conventional rice-wheat system in South Asia. Replacement of conventional management practices with conservation agriculture (CA) is required to improve soil quality. A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of CA on soil physical (bulk density, penetration resistance, infiltration) and chemical (N, P, K, S, micronutrients) properties after 4 years in North-West India. ...
Published on Mar 1, 2018in Geoderma4.34
Madhu Choudhary5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Central Soil Salinity Research Institute),
Ashim Datta4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Central Soil Salinity Research Institute)
+ 8 AuthorsRajbir Singh13
Estimated H-index: 13
(ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research)
Abstract Continuous rice-wheat (RW) rotation with conventional agronomic practices has resulted in declining factor productivity and degrading soil resources. A farmer's participatory research trial was conducted in Karnal, India to evaluate 8 combinations of cropping systems, tillage, crop establishment method and residue management effects on key soil physico-chemical and biological properties. Treatments (T) 1–4 involved RW and 5–8 maize-wheat (MW) with conventional tillage (CT) and zero till...
Cited By1
Newest
Faisal Nadeem4
Estimated H-index: 4
(H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad),
Muhammad Farooq37
Estimated H-index: 37
(Sultan Qaboos University)
+ 3 AuthorsMuhammad Naveed16
Estimated H-index: 16
(H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad)
ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to evaluate influence of zinc (Zn) application on productivity, grain biofortification and grain quality of wheat planted under plough tillage (PT) and zero tillage...
Published on Jun 1, 2019in Field Crops Research3.87
Faisal Nadeem4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Muhammad Farooq37
Estimated H-index: 37
+ 1 AuthorsRiaz Ahmad7
Estimated H-index: 7
ABSTRACT In Indo-Gangetic Plains, rice-wheat cropping system (RWC) is often practiced on alkaline soils low in organic matter and plant available boron (B). However, switching towards conservation tillage and B nutrition may help sustain the productivity of bread wheat in RWC. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of B application on the productivity, profitability and grain B concentration of bread wheat sown under plough tillage and zero tillage systems. Boron was delivered through s...
View next paperRole of herbicide-resistant rice in promoting resource conservation technologies in rice–wheat cropping systems of India: A review