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Rice–wheat cropping systems in South Asia: issues, options and opportunities

Published on Jan 1, 2019in Crop & Pasture Science1.33
· DOI :10.1071/CP18383
Ahmad Nawaz11
Estimated H-index: 11
(H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad),
Muhammad Farooq48
Estimated H-index: 48
(Sultan Qaboos University)
+ 2 AuthorsRattan Lal117
Estimated H-index: 117
(OSU: Ohio State University)
Sources
Abstract
The rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system is the largest agricultural production system worldwide, and is practised on 24 Mha in Asia. Many factors have threatened the long-term sustainability of conventional rice–wheat cropping systems, including degradation of soil health, water scarcity, labour/energy crises, nutrient imbalances, low soil organic matter contents, complex weed and insect flora, the emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds, and greenhouse-gas emissions. Options for improving the yield and sustainability of the rice–wheat cropping system include the use of resource-conservation technologies such as no-till wheat, laser-assisted land levelling, and direct-seeded aerobic rice. However, these technologies are site- and situation-specific; for example, direct-seeded aerobic rice is successful on heavy-textured soils but not sandy soils. Other useful strategies include seed priming, carbon trading and payment, the inclusion of legumes, and eco-friendly and biological methods of weed control. Irrigation based on soil matric potential using tensiometers can be useful for saving surplus water in direct-seeded, aerobic rice. These options and strategies will contribute to resolving water scarcity, saving labour and energy resources, reducing greenhouse-gas emissions, increasing soil organic matter contents, and improving the soil-quality index. Seed priming with various substances that supplement osmotic pressure (osmotica) is a viable option for addressing poor stand establishment in conservation rice–wheat cropping systems and for increasing crop yields. To strengthen the campaign for using resource-conservation technologies in rice–wheat cropping systems, carbon-payment schemes could be introduced and machinery should be offered at affordable prices. The persistent issue of burning crop residues could be resolved by incorporating these residues into biogas/ethanol and biochar production. Because rice and wheat are staple foods in South Asia, agronomic biofortification is a useful option for enhancing micronutrient contents in grains to help to reduce malnutrition.
  • References (297)
  • Citations (3)
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References297
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#1Md. Khairul AlamH-Index: 4
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The adoption of conservation agriculture (CA) in the intensive triple-cropping, rice-based systems of the Eastern Gangetic Plain (EGP) alters the dynamics of carbon (C) in the soil, but the nature of these changes is poorly understood. Our aim was to determine whether CA in these systems involving non-puddled transplanting of wetland rice and strip planting of dryland crops plus increased residue retention would increase the C storage in soils relative to conventional crop establishment practice...
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#1Abdul Rehman (H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad)H-Index: 10
#2Muhammad Farooq (Sultan Qaboos University)H-Index: 48
Last. Aman Ullah (H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad)H-Index: 6
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Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms and its deficiency is a major issue of malnutrition in humans. This study was carried out to characterize 28 wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential, genetic diversity and relatedness.; Results: There was low genetic differentiation among the tested genotypes. However, they differed greatly in yield-related traits, grain mineral (Zn, calcium (Ca) and protein) concentrations and Zn bioavailability. Zinc application in...
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Abstract Dry-seeded rice (DSR) grown with alternate wetting and drying water management (AWD) has recently been introduced in northwest India as an alternative to conventional puddled hand-transplanted rice which is labour, water and energy intensive. The aerobic seedbed of DSR can be extremely susceptible to invasion by diverse weed flora, and if weeds are not controlled effectively, yield losses can be very high. This study was undertaken to investigate the impacts of stale seedbed techniques ...
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#1Abdul Rehman (H.I., S.I.: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad)H-Index: 10
#2Muhammad Farooq (Sultan Qaboos University)H-Index: 48
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Zinc (Zn) deficiency reduces the grain yield and quality of wheat. Plant-growth-promoting bacteria may help to improve plant Zn availability. This study evaluated the influence of inorganic Zn, with and without Zn-solubilising bacteria (Pseudomonas sp. MN12), on performance and grain biofortification of wheat. Zinc was supplied with and without Pseudomonas to two bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Lasani-2008 and Faisalabad-2008) via four treatments: soil application (5.0 mg kg–1 soil...
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In the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is taken by conventional tilled puddled transplanted (CT-PTR) method. CT-PTR requires a lot of water (2000-2500 mm) which comes mainly from groundwater. Due to declining water table and changing climate, the sustainability of CT-PTR rice is under immense pressure. The alternative to CT-PTR could be direct seeded rice (DSR) which requires less water, labor, initial cost and energy than CT-PTR. But direct seeded rice is heavily inf...
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Abstract In the High Ganges River Floodplain of Bangladesh, rice is normally established by puddling and transplanting. This is a costly practice in terms of tillage, labour and irrigation requirement. Dry seeding of rice has the potential to reduce these costs and facilitate timely crop establishment. However, the performance of dry seeded rice (DSR) in other parts of South Asia has been variable in comparison with that of puddled transplanted rice (PTR). Therefore, a four-year replicated exper...
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