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Characteristics of REEs and trace elements in scheelite from the Zhuxi W deposit, South China: Implications for the ore-forming conditions and processes

Published on Jun 1, 2019in Ore Geology Reviews 3.39
· DOI :10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.05.003
Lulu Yuan , Guoxiang Chi20
Estimated H-index: 20
+ 6 AuthorsLan Zhang
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Abstract
Abstract The Zhuxi W deposit in Jiangxi, South China, with a resource of 2.86 Mt W and an average grade of 0.54% WO 3 , is the largest W deposit in the world. The deposit occurs at the contact between a late Mesozoic granitic intrusion and Carboniferous – Permian carbonate rocks and Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks. The ores are divided into three types: skarn ore (dominant), sulfide ore and greisen ore. Based on occurrences and petrographic relationships, scheelite (the dominant ore mineral) is classified into three types, i.e. type I (greisen), type II (skarn, specifically in the retrograde stage), and type III (hydrothermal sulfides). Type I and type II are time equivalent but spatially separated, whereas type III is later. The different types of scheelite have distinctly different REE and trace element compositions. Type I scheelite is characterized by an average ΣREE of 67.9 ppm, LREE/HREE ratio of 24.4, δEu of 8.5, Mo of 0.1 ppm and Sr of 1058 ppm, whereas type II scheelite features an average ΣREE of 48.1 ppm, LREE/HREE ratio of 10.6, δEu of 0.67, Mo of 1892 ppm and Sr of 90.1 ppm. Type III scheelite has an average ΣREE of 53.9 ppm, LREE/HREE ratio of 4.8, δEu of 17.5, Mo of 92.9 ppm and Sr of 37.1 ppm. The extremely high concentrations of Sr and highly positive Eu anomalies in type I scheelite are likely related to release of these elements from plagioclase in the granite during greisenization, whereas the extremely low concentrations of Mo may be related to the reducing and high-temperature nature of the magmatic fluid – Mo probably was mainly in the Mo 4+ state and could not replace W 6+ in the scheelite lattice. In contrast, the negative Eu anomalies and high Mo concentrations in type II scheelite suggest that the mineralizing environment in the retrograde alteration stage was relatively oxidizing, causing Eu to exist mainly as Eu 3+ , which is difficult to replace Ca 2+ in scheelite, and Mo mainly as Mo 6+ , which is easy to replace W 6+ in scheelite. In the sulfide mineralization stage, the fluid became relatively reducing again, and Eu 2+ could easily replace Ca 2+ in scheelite causing positive Eu anomalies, whereas Mo mainly exists as Mo 4+ and precipitated as molybdenite, and so has limited substitution for W 6+ in scheelite. The REE and trace element compositions of the dominant W mineral (type II scheelite), characterized by high concentrations of Mo, high LREE/HREE ratios and negative Eu anomalies, indicate that the ore-forming materials were mainly derived from the granitic intrusions. The variation of REE and trace elements in scheelite in time and space reflects a complex magmatic-hydrothermal mineralization process involving various fluid-rock reactions within the intrusion and in the country rocks. The formation of the Zhuxi W deposit is linked with a large fertile granitic intrusion, which delivered a large amount of W to the site of mineralization through convection within the magma chamber, and W precipitation in the skarn was largely caused by an abrupt drop in temperature and increase in pH of the ore-forming fluid.
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Published on Apr 1, 2019in Mineralium Deposita 3.40
Shiwei Song1
Estimated H-index: 1
(PKU: Peking University),
Jingwen Mao33
Estimated H-index: 33
(PKU: Peking University)
+ 5 AuthorsYongpeng Ouyang2
Estimated H-index: 2
The Zhuxi W (Cu) skarn deposit is the largest W deposit in the Jiangnan porphyry–skarn tungsten belt in South China, and is also among the largest deposit of this type in the world. Titanite is a common mineral in the Zhuxi deposit, and occurs in three textural settings: titanite I associated with retrograde-altered exoskarn with weak mineralization; titanite II in retrograde-altered endoskarn with disseminated Cu ore; and titanite III from altered granite with disseminated W ore. Here, we prese...
Published on Jul 1, 2018in Lithos 3.91
Shiwei Song1
Estimated H-index: 1
(PKU: Peking University),
Jingwen Mao33
Estimated H-index: 33
(PKU: Peking University)
+ 4 AuthorsYongpeng Ouyang2
Estimated H-index: 2
Abstract A quartz-free scheelite-bearing fine- to medium-grained anorthosite occurs as a dike in the world-class Zhuxi scheelite skarn deposit of South China. The anorthosite mainly comprises An-rich plagioclase (An avg = 91, ~90 vol%) + scheelite (~3 vol%) + apatite (~2.5 vol%) + ilmenite (~1.5 vol%) + titanite (~1 vol%), as well as minor (~2 vol%) fluorite, prehnite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, sphalerite, rutile, and uraninite. This paper reports the first occurrence of scheelite-bearin...
Published on Apr 1, 2018in Lithos 3.91
Shiwei Song1
Estimated H-index: 1
(PKU: Peking University),
Jingwen Mao33
Estimated H-index: 33
(PKU: Peking University)
+ 4 AuthorsYongpeng Ouyang2
Estimated H-index: 2
Abstract The Zhuxi W-Cu deposit, located in the Jiangnan porphyry-skarn W belt, is a world-class W deposit. We studied three coeval mineralization-related intrusions composed of biotite monzogranite, fine-grained granite, and granite porphyry in the Zhuxi mine. These rocks contain peritectic garnet and K-feldspar. The LA-ICP-MS U–Pb dating of zircon from the biotite monzogranite, fine-grained granite, and granite porphyry yields average ages of 149.38 ± 0.86 Ma, 149.0 ± 1.0 Ma, and 148.30 ± 1.4 ...
Published on Jan 1, 2018in Lithos 3.91
Qiangwei Su1
Estimated H-index: 1
(China University of Geosciences),
Jingwen Mao33
Estimated H-index: 33
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 2 AuthorsShengfa Xu1
Estimated H-index: 1
• The Xiaoyao deposit is a typical tungsten polymetallic skarn deposit in the newly world-class porphyry–skarn tungsten ore belt.
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Ore Geology Reviews 3.39
Panlao Zhao3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Shunda Yuan3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 4 AuthorsYan Shuang2
Estimated H-index: 2
Abstract The world-class Dongpo orefield, located in the Nanling Range, South China, is famous for its large-scale accumulation of W–Sn–Mo–Bi–Pb–Zn–Ag deposits, which includes the giant Shizhuyuan W-Sn-Mo-Bi, Jinchuantang Sn-Bi, Yejiwei Sn-Cu and Congshuban Pb-Zn-Ag deposits. The polymetallic mineralization around the Qianlishan pluton exhibits systematic zoning and comprises proximal W–Sn–Mo–Bi skarn-greisen and distal Pb–Zn–Ag veins. However, the timing and genetic link of its proximal skarn-g...
Published on Nov 1, 2017in Ore Geology Reviews 3.39
Pan Dai2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Jingwen Mao33
Estimated H-index: 33
+ 2 AuthorsXiaohong Luo3
Estimated H-index: 3
(NU: Northwestern University)
Abstract The Xianglushan W deposit in northwestern Jiangxi Province, South China, is one of numerous large-size W deposits along the northern margin of the Jiangnan Massif. The deposit comprises lenticular and stratiform-like orebodies, mainly along the contact between argillaceous limestone of the Cambrian Yangliugang Formation and a biotite granite pluton. The mineralization is zoned from proximal W greisen within the cupolas of the biotite granite, through W skarn and sulfide-scheelite bands ...
Published on Oct 1, 2017in Ore Geology Reviews 3.39
Chengbin Wang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(China University of Geosciences),
Jianfeng Rao1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 3 AuthorsQiang Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract The Zhuxi deposit is the largest copper-tungsten polymetallic deposit in the world and is in Jiangxi Province in South China. The ore body is characterized by hydrothermal-vein deposits of copper, lead, and zinc minerals at shallow levels, skarn deposits of tungsten and copper minerals at middle levels, and altered-granite-hosted copper and tungsten minerals at depth. Such metallogenic systems are typically intrusion-related. The intrusive granites related to the Zhuxi polymetallic depo...
Published on Aug 1, 2017in Lithos 3.91
Jingwen Mao33
Estimated H-index: 33
,
Bikang Xiong2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 5 AuthorsPan Dai1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract The Yangchuling W–Mo deposit, located in the Jiangnan porphyry–skarn (JNB) tungsten ore belt, is the first recognized typical porphyry W–Mo deposit in China in the 1980's. Stockworks and disseminated W–Mo mineralization occur in the roof pendant of a 0.3 km 2 monzogranitic porphyry stock that intruded into a granodiorite stock, hosted by Neoproterozoic phyllite and slate. LA-ICPMS zircon U–Pb analyses suggest that of the monzogranitic porphyry and granodiorite were formed at 143.8 ± 0.5...
Published on Aug 1, 2017in Ore Geology Reviews 3.39
Deru Xu2
Estimated H-index: 2
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences),
Chi Guoxiang2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Regina)
+ 2 AuthorsSun Weidong3
Estimated H-index: 3
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Abstract The Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Yanshanian Orogeny (or “Yenshan Movement”), one of the most important tectonothermal events, is first recognized in China, especially eastern China. This Late Mesozoic orogeny, which was initiated most likely by a Mesozoic tectonic switch, strongly reworked or destructed the older continental lithospheres or cratonic keels that are manifested by alternating compressive and extensional deformation, voluminous igneous rocks, and a variety of characteristic mag...
Published on Aug 1, 2017in Ore Geology Reviews 3.39
Deru Xu11
Estimated H-index: 11
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences),
Teng Deng4
Estimated H-index: 4
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
+ 4 AuthorsShaohao Zou3
Estimated H-index: 3
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Abstract Located in the southeastern margin of the Yangtze Block and generally interpreted as the Neoproterozoic collisional product of the Yangtze with the Cathaysia Blocks of South China, the Jiangnan Orogenic Belt (JOB) contains a number of gold (Au) (-polymetallic) ore deposits and mineral showings, mostly hosted by Neoproterozoic low-grade metamorphic volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks. The mineralization styles mainly include auriferous quartz veins and disseminated mineralization in alt...
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