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Two functionally distinct CYP4G genes of Anopheles gambiae contribute to cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis

Published on Jul 1, 2019in Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology3.618
· DOI :10.1016/j.ibmb.2019.04.018
Mary Kefi2
Estimated H-index: 2
(FORTH: Foundation for Research & Technology – Hellas),
Vasileia Balabanidou4
Estimated H-index: 4
(FORTH: Foundation for Research & Technology – Hellas)
+ 3 AuthorsJohn Vontas42
Estimated H-index: 42
(FORTH: Foundation for Research & Technology – Hellas)
Source
Abstract
Abstract Cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) biosynthesis is a major pathway of insect physiology. In Drosophila melanogaster the cytochrome P450 CYP4G1 catalyses the insect-specific oxidative decarbonylation step, while in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, two CYP4G paralogues, CYP4G16 and CYP4G17 are present. Analysis of the subcellular localization of CYP4G17 and CYP4G16 in larval and pupal stages revealed that CYP4G16 preserves its PM localization across developmental stages analyzed; however CYPG17 is differentially localized in two distinct types of pupal oenocytes, presumably oenocytes of larval and adult developmental specificity. Western blot analysis showed the presence of two CYP4G17 forms, potentially associated with each oenocyte type. Both An. gambiae CYP4Gs were expressed in D. melanogaster flies in a Cyp4g1 silenced background in order to functionally characterize them in vivo. CYP4G16, CYP4G17 or their combination rescued the lethal phenotype of Cyp4g1-knock down flies, demonstrating that CYP4G17 is also a functional decarbonylase, albeit of somewhat lower efficiency than CYP4G16 in Drosophila. Flies expressing mosquito CYP4G16 and/or CYP4G17 produced similar CHC profiles to ‘wild-type’ flies expressing the endogenous CYP4G1, but they also produce very long-chain dimethyl-branched CHCs not detectable in wild type flies, suggesting that the specificity of the CYP4G enzymes contributes to determine the complexity of the CHC blend. In conclusion, both An. gambiae CYP4G enzymes contribute to the unique Anopheles CHC profile, which has been associated to defense, adult desiccation tolerance, insecticide penetration rate and chemical communication.
  • References (34)
  • Citations (3)
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References34
Newest
#1Pawel Piwko (FORTH: Foundation for Research & Technology – Hellas)H-Index: 1
#2Ilektra Vitsaki (FORTH: Foundation for Research & Technology – Hellas)H-Index: 1
Last. Christos Delidakis (FORTH: Foundation for Research & Technology – Hellas)H-Index: 21
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Transvection is the phenomenon where a transcriptional enhancer activates a promoter located on the homologous chromosome. It has been amply documented in Drosophila where homologs are closely paired in most, if not all, somatic nuclei, but it has been known to rarely occur in mammals as well. We have taken advantage of site-directed transgenesis to insert reporter constructs into the same genetic locus in Drosophila and have evaluated their ability to engage in transvection by testing many hete...
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#1Dimitra Tsakireli (FORTH: Foundation for Research & Technology – Hellas)H-Index: 6
#2Maria Riga (FORTH: Foundation for Research & Technology – Hellas)H-Index: 1
Last. John Vontas (FORTH: Foundation for Research & Technology – Hellas)H-Index: 42
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Abstract Overexpression of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6A51 has been previously associated with pyrethroid resistance in the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata, an important pest species worldwide; however, this association has not been functionally validated. We expressed CYP6A51 gene in Escherichia coli and produced a functional enzyme with preference for the chemiluminescent substrate Luciferin-ME EGE. In vitro metabolism assays revealed that CYP6A51 is capable of me...
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#1Marina MacLean (UNR: University of Nevada, Reno)H-Index: 5
#2Jeffrey A. Nadeau (UNR: University of Nevada, Reno)H-Index: 3
Last. Gary J. Blomquist (UNR: University of Nevada, Reno)H-Index: 50
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Abstract Hydrocarbon biosynthesis in insects involves the elongation of fatty acyl-CoAs to very-long chain fatty acyl-CoAs that are then reduced and converted to hydrocarbon, with the last step involving the oxidative decarbonylation of an aldehyde to hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide. Cytochromes P450 in the 4G family decarbonylate aldehydes to hydrocarbon. All insect acyl-CoA reductases studied to date reduce fatty acyl-CoAs to alcohols. The results of the work reported herein demonstrate that CY...
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Intense use of insecticides has resulted in the selection of extreme levels of resistance in insect populations. Therefore understanding the molecular basis of insecticide resistance mechanisms becomes critical. Penetration resistance refers to modifications in the cuticle that will eventually slow down the penetration of insecticide molecules within insects' body. So far, two mechanisms of penetration resistance have been described, the cuticle thickening and the altering of cuticle composition...
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#2Anastasia Kampouraki (UoC: University of Crete)H-Index: 4
Last. John Vontas (FORTH: Foundation for Research & Technology – Hellas)H-Index: 42
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The role of cuticle changes in insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae was assessed. The rate of internalization of 14C deltamethrin was significantly slower in a resistant strain than in a susceptible strain. Topical application of an acetone insecticide formulation to circumvent lipid-based uptake barriers decreased the resistance ratio by ∼50%. Cuticle analysis by electron microscopy and characterization of lipid extracts indicated that resistant mosquitoes had a ...
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#2Diana L. Huestis (NIH: National Institutes of Health)H-Index: 13
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ABSTRACT The African malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii range over forests and arid areas, where they withstand dry spells and months-long dry seasons, suggesting variation in their desiccation tolerance. We subjected a laboratory colony (G3) and wild Sahelian mosquitoes during the rainy and dry seasons to desiccation assays. The thoracic spiracles and amount and composition of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of individual mosquitoes were measured to determine the effects ...
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#1Claude Wicker-Thomas (University of Paris-Sud)H-Index: 14
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Last. Jacques Montagne (University of Paris-Sud)H-Index: 13
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In terrestrial insects, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) provide protection from desiccation. Specific CHCs can also act as pheromones, which are important for successful mating. Oenocytes are abdominal cells thought to act as specialized units for CHC biogenesis that consists of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) synthesis, optional desaturation(s), elongation to very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), and removal of the carboxyl group. By investigating CHC biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, we showed...
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Background: The elevated expression of enzymes with insecticide metabolism activity can lead to high levels of insecticide resistance in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. In this study, adult female mosquitoes from an insecticide susceptible and resistant strain were dissected into four different body parts. RNA from each of these samples was used in microarray analysis to determine the enrichment patterns of the key detoxification gene families within the mosquito and to identify additiona...
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The surface of insects is coated in cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs); variations in the composition of this layer affect a range of traits including adaptation to arid environments and defence against pathogens and toxins. In the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae quantitative and qualitative variance in CHC composition have been associated with speciation, ecological habitat and insecticide resistance. Understanding how these modifications arise will inform us of how mosquitoes are respondi...
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Abstract The large and diverse P450 (CYP) superfamily encodes enzymes with a wide spectrum of monooxygenase and related activities. Insect P450 enzymes of the CYP4G subfamily are known to catalyze the synthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons that serve multiple functions from desiccation resistance to chemical communication. These functions are essential for survival. In order to understand the evolution of insect CYP4G genes, 368 sequences from 24 insect orders and 167 species were mined and analyze...
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Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are the main components of the epicuticular wax layer that in many insects functions as a barrier against desiccation. CHCs also play many other roles, including serving as sex pheromones, kairomones, primer pheromones, and colony-, caste-, species- and sex-recognition signals. In insects, CHC profiles can vary depending upon age, species, sex, and strain. Understanding factors associated with variation in hydrocarbon profiles is important for identifying potential ...
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Oenocytes are an insect cell type having diverse physiological functions ranging from cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) production to insecticide detoxification that may impact their capacity to transmit pathogens. To develop functional genetic tools to study Anopheles gambiae oenocytes, we have trapped an oenocyte enhancer to create a transgenic mosquito Gal4 driver line that mediates tissue-specific expression. After crossing with UAS-reporter lines, An. gambiae oenocytes are fluorescently tagged th...
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