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Self-reported aggression amongst active cyclists

Published on Jul 1, 2019in Accident Analysis & Prevention3.058
· DOI :10.1016/j.aap.2019.04.004
Amanda N. Stephens17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Monash University, Clayton campus),
Steve O׳Hern4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Monash University, Clayton campus)
+ 2 AuthorsSjaan Koppel22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Monash University, Clayton campus)
Sources
Abstract
Abstract There is a paucity of research regarding aggressive behaviours of on-road cyclists and the consequences that aggression may have on their safety. To address this, we examined self-reported anger-based aggression in a sample of “active” cyclists (N = 623: males = 69%) defined as those who regularly ride a bicycle on-road (all rode at least once a week, 64% rode between 4–7 days per week). Using the Cyclist Anger Expression Inventory (CAX) three broad types of anger-based aggression were identified: 1) constructive ways of dealing with anger, 2) verbal aggression and 3) personal physical aggression. Cyclists reported that most to almost all of the time they deal with anger in adaptive constructive ways. When they were aggressive, they were most likely to express this through verbal types of aggression such as shouting or swearing aloud. Personal physical types of aggression were infrequent and these were the only type of behaviour found to be related to crashes. Regression analyses showed that factors associated with personal physical aggression included anger propensities, distance travelled, being male and younger. Interestingly, personal physical aggression was also more frequently expressed by cyclists classified as “strong and fearless” (Geller, 2009), that is avid cyclists who feel comfortable in all riding environments. Therefore, although the expressions of extreme aggression are rare, they are expressed in a group of riders who regularly ride on the road, making them particularly vulnerable. Effective strategies need to be developed to lessen cyclist aggression and mitigate the potential risks associated with these behaviours, for both cyclists and other vulnerable road users.
  • References (23)
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#1Steve O׳Hern (Monash University)H-Index: 4
#2Amanda N. Stephens (Monash University)H-Index: 17
Last. Sjaan Koppel (Monash University)H-Index: 22
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Abstract Over the past two decades, there has been a substantial amount of research showing the detrimental influence of trait driver anger on road safety. However, very few studies have investigated this phenomenon in more vulnerable road user groups, such as cyclists. This study administered the Cycling Anger Scale (CAS) to a sample of 636 active cyclists (who regularly ride on-road) to understand the situations that provoke anger in cyclists, and whether this anger differed according to their...
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#1Steve O׳Hern (Monash University)H-Index: 4
#2Jennie Oxley (Monash University)H-Index: 6
AbstractObjectives: The number of casualty road crashes in Australia has steadily reduced over the past few decades; however, a concurrent reduction has not been achieved for crashes involving cyclists. This has resulted in a disproportionate overrepresentation of cyclists in fatal injury statistics. This article explores the contributing factors and injury mechanisms among coronial reported fatal cyclist crashes in Australia.Methods: The National Coronial Information System (NCIS) is a remote d...
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#2Sonja Haustein (DTU: Technical University of Denmark)H-Index: 16
Abstract Based on the short form of the driving anger expression inventory (DAX-short, 15-item), the present study developed an adapted version of the DAX for cyclists (CAX, 14 items). The data basis was an online survey of 2000 inhabitants of Denmark. A principle component analysis on the translated DAX-short confirmed the 4-factor solution of the original study differentiating between (1) personal physical aggressive expression, (2) use of a vehicle to express anger, (3) verbal aggressive expr...
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#1Amanda N. Stephens (Monash University)H-Index: 17
#2Michael Fitzharris (Monash University)H-Index: 22
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#1Amanda N. Stephens (Monash University)H-Index: 17
#2Mark J.M. Sullman (Cranfield University)H-Index: 22
Aggressive driving is acknowledged as a contributor to motor vehicle crashes. This study explored a theoretical model of aggressive expression and crash-related outcomes using self-report data collected, using an online questionnaire, from drivers in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. The proposed model tested whether the personality traits of boredom proneness, sensation seeking, and impulsivity, coupled with trait driving anger, predicted aggressive driving; and whether aggressive...
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#1Amanda N. Stephens (Monash University)H-Index: 17
#2Mark J.M. Sullman (Cranfield University)H-Index: 22
The present study developed a revised version of the driving anger expression inventory (25-items) and a short (15-item) version using data from 551 drivers. Split half factor analyses on both versions confirmed the original four factors; personal physical aggressive expression, use of a vehicle to express anger, verbal aggressive expression and adaptive/constructive expression. The two DAX versions were strongly correlated, demonstrating the suitability of both forms of the scale and the aggres...
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#1Amanda N. Stephens (VU: Victoria University, Australia)H-Index: 17
#2John A. Groeger (University of Hull)H-Index: 31
Two experiments investigated the effects of lead-driver status on the anger-experienced and aggression-expressed in traffic scenarios in which the lead drivers’ actions were determined by an event obviously beyond, or within, their control. Experiment I contrasted reactions to lead-cars bearing Learner driver markings (Low Status) or similar unmarked cars (Control), while Experiment II contrasted reactions to Ambulances (High Status) or otherwise identical generic work vans (Control). Reported a...
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#1Jennifer Dill (PSU: Portland State University)H-Index: 24
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The labeling and the categorizing of cyclists have been occurring for more than a century for a variety of purposes. This study examined a typology developed by the City of Portland, Oregon, that included four categories of cyclists: "the strong and the fearless," "the enthused and confident," "the interested but concerned," and "no way, no how." Unlike several other typologies, this widely referenced typology was intended to apply to all adults, regardless of their current cycling behavior. An ...
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Abstract As vulnerable road users, cyclists are suffering from a disproportionate burden of crash injuries and fatalities. Road anger has been demonstrated as an important precursor of unsafe behaviors and crash-related outcomes for drivers. However, little attention has been paid to road anger experienced by cyclists and less is known about how cyclists’ road anger would impact their road safety, especially in middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric p...
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