Blood and urine biomarkers in chronic kidney disease: An update
Abstract Introduction Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a silent disease. Most CKD patients are unaware of their condition during the early stages of the disease which poses a challenge for healthcare professionals to institute treatment or start prevention. The trouble with the diagnosis of CKD is that in most parts of the world, it is still diagnosed based on measurements of serum creatinine and corresponding calculations of eGFR. There are controversies with the current staging system, especially in the methodology to diagnose and prognosticate CKD. Objective The aim of this review is to examine studies that focused on the different types of samples which may serve as a good and promising biomarker for early diagnosis of CKD or to detect rapidly declining renal function among CKD patient. Method The review of international literature was made on paper and electronic databases Nature, PubMed, Springer Link and Science Direct. The Scopus index was used to verify the scientific relevance of the papers. Publications were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Result 63 publications were found to be compatible with the study objectives. Several biomarkers of interest with different sample types were taken for comparison. Conclusion Biomarkers from urine samples yield more significant outcome as compare to biomarkers from blood samples. But, validation and confirmation with a different type of study designed on a larger population is needed. More comparison studies on different types of samples are needed to further illuminate which biomarker is the better tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of CKD.