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Is Crohn’s Disease the Price to Pay Today for Having Survived the Black Death?

Published on Sep 27, 2019in Journal of Crohns & Colitis
· DOI :10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjz062
Anne Dumay2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Paris Diderot University),
Olivier Gergaud11
Estimated H-index: 11
(KEDGE Business School)
+ 1 AuthorsJean-Pierre Hugot23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Paris Diderot University)
Abstract
  • References (19)
  • Citations (0)
References19
Newest
Researchers have published several articles using historical data sets on plague epidemics using impressive digital databases that contain thousands of recorded outbreaks across Europe over the past several centuries. Through the digitization of preexisting data sets, scholars have unprecedented access to the historical record of plague occurrences. However, although these databases offer new research opportunities, noncritical use and reproduction of preexisting data sets can also limit our und...
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Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that senses bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN)-conserved motifs in cytosol and stimulates host immune response. The association of NOD2 mutations with a number of inflammatory pathologies, including Crohn disease (CD), Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and Blau syndrome, highlights its pivotal role in host–pathogen interactions and inflammatory response. Stimulation of NOD2 by its ligand (muramyl dipep...
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Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the two main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here we report the first trans-ancestry association study of IBD, with genome-wide or Immunochip genotype data from an extended cohort of 86,640 European individuals and Immunochip data from 9,846 individuals of East Asian, Indian or Iranian descent. We implicate 38 loci in IBD risk for the first time. For the majority of the IBD risk loci, the direction and magnitude of effect are consistent in Eu...
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The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins NOD1 and NOD2, the founding members of the intracellular NOD-like receptor family, sense conserved motifs in bacterial peptidoglycan and induce proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses. Here, we discuss recent developments about the mechanisms by which NOD1 and NOD2 are activated by bacterial ligands, the regulation of their signaling pathways, and their role in host defense and inflammatory disease. Several routes for the entry of ...
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This paper empirically investigates why, between 800 and 1800, the urban center of gravity moved from the Islamic world to Europe. Using a large new city-specific data set covering Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, we unravel the role of geography and institutions in determining long-run city development in the two regions. We find that the main reasons for the Islamic world's stagnation and Europe's long-term success are specific to each region: any significant positive interaction bet...
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Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome-wide association studies and subsequent meta-analyses of these two diseases as separate phenotypes have implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy, in their pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases. Here we expand on the knowledge...
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#1Daniel C. Baumgart (Humboldt University of Berlin)H-Index: 42
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Summary Crohn's disease is a relapsing systemic inflammatory disease, mainly affecting the gastrointestinal tract with extraintestinal manifestations and associated immune disorders. Genome wide association studies identified susceptibility loci that—triggered by environmental factors—result in a disturbed innate (ie, disturbed intestinal barrier, Paneth cell dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, defective unfolded protein response and autophagy, impaired recognition of microbes by pattern ...
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Risk alleles for complex diseases are widely spread throughout human populations. However, little is known about the geographic distribution and frequencies of risk alleles, which may contribute to differences in disease susceptibility and prevalence among populations. Here, we focus on Crohn’s disease (CD) as a model for the evolutionary study of complex disease alleles. Recent genome-wide association studies and classical linkage analyses have identified more than 70 susceptible genomic region...
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#1Ulrich Meinzer (French Institute of Health and Medical Research)H-Index: 8
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Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteropathogenic bacteria that disrupts the intestinal barrier and invades its host through gut-associated lymphoid tissue and Peyer's patches (PP). We show that t ...
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We construct a matrix showing the share of the year 2000 population in every country that is descended from people in different source countries in the year 1500. Using this matrix, we analyze how post-1500 migration has influenced the level of GDP per capita and within-country income inequality in the world today. Indicators of early development such as early state history and the timing of transition to agriculture have much better predictive power for current GDP when one looks at the ancesto...
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BACKGROUND: The initiating events of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are not well-defined, but GI infections are implicated. AIMS: To define the role of GI infections in risk of incident inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and synthesise the current body of relevant translational data to provide biological context for associations between GI infections and IBD risk. METHODS: We systematically reviewed electronic databases through Februa...
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