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Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Obesity

Published on Jan 1, 2019
· DOI :10.1007/978-3-030-04816-7_14
Louise de Lannoy (UM: University of Michigan), Robert Ross47
Estimated H-index: 47
(UM: University of Michigan)
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Abstract
In this chapter we review the evidence from prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials that consider the interactions between physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and obesity. Furthermore, we consider the interaction between these variables and obesity-related health outcomes. We observe that in prospective studies both PA and CRF are inversely associated with obesity and obesity-related health outcomes. Based on evidence from randomized controlled trials, we highlight the importance of PA for weight management and improvement in CRF, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Finally, we conclude with an overview of current PA recommendations for improving CRF and reducing obesity, as well as a discussion on the importance of PA and CRF as clinically relevant measures beyond obesity management.
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References124
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Published on Mar 1, 2018in Journal of the American College of Cardiology 18.64
Trine Moholdt16
Estimated H-index: 16
,
Carl J. Lavie82
Estimated H-index: 82
,
Javaid Nauman17
Estimated H-index: 17
Abstract Background Individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD) are recommended to be physically active and to maintain a healthy weight. There is a lack of data on how long-term changes in body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA) relate to mortality in this population. Objectives This study sought to determine the associations among changes in BMI, PA, and mortality in individuals with CHD. Methods The authors studied 3,307 individuals (1,038 women) with CHD from the HUNT (Nord-Tronde...
Published on Jan 9, 2018in Circulation 23.05
I-Min Lee95
Estimated H-index: 95
(Brigham and Women's Hospital),
Eric J. Shiroma17
Estimated H-index: 17
(Harvard University)
+ 3 AuthorsJulie E. Buring154
Estimated H-index: 154
(Brigham and Women's Hospital)
Physical inactivity is estimated to cause as many deaths globally each year as smoking. Current guidelines recommend ≥150 min/wk of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (PA) and muscle-strengthening exercises on ≥2 d/wk.2 These guidelines are based primarily on studies using self-reported moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA). Technological developments now enable device assessments of light-intensity PA (LPA) and sedentary behavior, and well-designed studies with such assessments th...
Published on Apr 1, 2017in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 4.48
John Mason Clarke1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Louise de Lannoy7
Estimated H-index: 7
,
Robert Ross47
Estimated H-index: 47
Introduction: Adoption of physical activity (PA) consistent with current guidelines does not improve maximal cardiorespiratory fitness (mCRF; V˙O2peak) beyond the error of measurement for approximately 30% of adults. Whether PA improves measures of exercise tolerance at submaximal levels (submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness [sCRF]) independent of change in mCRF is unknown. Here we assessed the relationship between exercise-induced changes in mCRF and sCRF. Methods: Twenty-five physically inacti...
Published on Feb 1, 2017in PLOS ONE 2.78
Aiden R. Doherty27
Estimated H-index: 27
(University of Oxford),
Daniel Jackson16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Newcastle University)
+ 13 AuthorsChristoper G. Owen1
Estimated H-index: 1
(St George's, University of London)
BACKGROUND: Physical activity has not been objectively measured in prospective cohorts with sufficiently large numbers to reliably detect associations with multiple health outcomes. Technological advances now make this possible. We describe the methods used to collect and analyse accelerometer measured physical activity in over 100,000 participants of the UK Biobank study, and report variation by age, sex, day, time of day, and season. METHODS: Participants were approached by email to wear a wri...
Published on Jan 1, 2017in The Journal for Nurse Practitioners
Barbara Ainsworth1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Susan Weber Buchholz9
Estimated H-index: 9
Abstract Nurse practitioners can assess their patients' physical activity levels using questionnaires, pedometers, and accelerometers. Questionnaires can be used as a vital sign during clinic visits to categorize patients as meeting national physical recommendations and/or to identify the time per week patients engage in health-enhancing physical activity levels. Alternatively, pedometers and accelerometers can be used by nurse practitioners to monitor patients' progress in meeting recommended p...
Published on Dec 13, 2016in Circulation 23.05
Robert Ross47
Estimated H-index: 47
,
Steven N. Blair140
Estimated H-index: 140
+ 13 AuthorsCarl J. Lavie82
Estimated H-index: 82
Mounting evidence has firmly established that low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and mortality rates attributable to various cancers. A growing body of epidemiological and clinical evidence demonstrates not only that CRF is a potentially stronger predictor of mortality than established risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but that the addition of CRF t...
Published on Aug 1, 2016in Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2.87
Clemens Drenowatz13
Estimated H-index: 13
(USC: University of South Carolina),
Vivek K. Prasad6
Estimated H-index: 6
(USC: University of South Carolina)
+ 2 AuthorsSteven N. Blair140
Estimated H-index: 140
(USC: University of South Carolina)
Current physical activity (PA) guidelines indicate that moderate-intensity (MPA) and vigorous intensity (VPA) PA provide similar benefits when total volume is equal. The present study examined the associations of MPA and VPA with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in free-living young adults. A total of 197 young adults (52.8 % male) were followed over a period of 15 months. Body composition was assessed via dual X-ray absorptiometry and time spent in various PA intensities was deter...
Published on May 1, 2016in The American Journal of Medicine 4.76
T. Alexander Ricketts1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Queen's University),
Xuemei Sui47
Estimated H-index: 47
(USC: University of South Carolina)
+ 2 AuthorsRobert Ross47
Estimated H-index: 47
(Queen's University)
Abstract Objective Guidelines for identification of obesity-related risk which stratify disease risk using specific combinations of body mass index and waist circumference. Whether the addition of cardiorespiratory fitness, an independent predictor of disease risk, provides better risk prediction of all-cause mortality within current body mass index and waist circumference categories is unknown. The study objective was to determine whether the addition of cardiorespiratory fitness improves predi...
Published on Apr 1, 2016in Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 3.62
Steven P. Hooker28
Estimated H-index: 28
(ASU: Arizona State University),
Brent Hutto19
Estimated H-index: 19
(USC: University of South Carolina)
+ 5 AuthorsVirginia J. Howard67
Estimated H-index: 67
(UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)
Abstract Objectives Health disparities between subgroups may be partially due to differences in lifestyle behaviors such as sedentariness and physical activity. To obtain a more accurate description of these two lifestyle behaviors, accelerometry was employed among a large sample of white and black adults (ages 49–99 years) living in the United States. Design Cross-sectional. Methods 7967 participants from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke cohort wore an Actical™ accele...
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