Match!

Self-presentation in interracial settings: The competence downshift by White liberals.

Published on Sep 1, 2019in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology5.919
· DOI :10.1037/pspi0000166
Cydney H. Dupree5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Yale University),
Susan T. Fiske87
Estimated H-index: 87
(Princeton University)
Abstract
Most Whites, particularly sociopolitical liberals, now endorse racial equality. Archival and experimental research reveals a subtle but persistent ironic consequence: White liberals self-present less competence to minorities than to other Whites—that is, they patronize minorities stereotyped as lower status and less competent. In an initial archival demonstration of the competence downshift, Study 1 examined the content of White Republican and Democratic presidential candidates’ campaign speeches. Although Republican candidates did not significantly shift language based on audience racial composition, Democratic candidates used less competence-related language to minority audiences than to White audiences. Across 5 experiments (total N = 2,157), White participants responded to a Black or White hypothetical (Studies 2, 3, 4, S1) or ostensibly real (Study 5) interaction partner. Three indicators of self-presentation converged: competence-signaling of vocabulary selected for an assignment, competence-related traits selected for an introduction, and competence-related content of brief, open-ended introductions. Conservatism indicators included self-reported political affiliation (liberal-conservative), Right-Wing Authoritarianism (values-based conservatism), and Social Dominance Orientation (hierarchy-based conservatism). Internal meta-analyses revealed that liberals—but not conservatives—presented less competence to Black interaction partners than to White ones. The simple effect was small but significant across studies, and most reliable for the self-reported measure of conservatism. This possibly unintentional but ultimately patronizing competence-downshift suggests that well-intentioned liberal Whites may draw on low-status/competence stereotypes to affiliate with minorities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
  • References (94)
  • Citations (5)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
14 Citations
2014
1 Author (Neil Visalvanich)
308 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References94
Newest
#1Rob Voigt (Stanford University)H-Index: 6
#2Nicholas P. Camp (Stanford University)H-Index: 2
Last. Jennifer L. Eberhardt (Stanford University)H-Index: 18
view all 9 authors...
Abstract Using footage from body-worn cameras, we analyze the respectfulness of police officer language toward white and black community members during routine traffic stops. We develop computational linguistic methods that extract levels of respect automatically from transcripts, informed by a thin-slicing study of participant ratings of officer utterances. We find that officers speak with consistently less respect toward black versus white community members, even after controlling for the race...
35 CitationsSource
Theories of race relations have been shaped by the concept of a racial hierarchy along which Whites are the most advantaged and African Americans the most disadvantaged. However, the recent precipitated growth of Latinos and Asian Americans in the United States underscores the need for a framework that integrates more groups. The current work proposes that racial and ethnic minority groups are disadvantaged along 2 distinct dimensions of perceived inferiority and perceived cultural foreignness, ...
26 CitationsSource
#1Andrea E. Abele (FAU: University of Erlangen-Nuremberg)H-Index: 31
#2Nicole Hauke (FAU: University of Erlangen-Nuremberg)H-Index: 2
Last. Yanping Duan (Hong Kong Baptist University)H-Index: 6
view all 6 authors...
Agency (A) and communion (C) are fundamental content dimensions. We propose a facet-model that differentiates A into assertiveness (AA) and competence (AC) and C into warmth (CW) and morality (CM). We tested the model in a cross-cultural study by comparing data from Asia, Australia, Europe, and the USA (overall N = 1.808). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported our model. Both the two-factor model and the four-factor model showed good fit indices across countries. Participants an...
31 CitationsSource
#1Jin X. Goh (NU: Northeastern University)H-Index: 5
#2Judith A. Hall (NU: Northeastern University)H-Index: 69
Last. Robert Rosenthal (UCR: University of California, Riverside)H-Index: 90
view all 3 authors...
We outline the need to, and provide a guide on how to, conduct a meta-analysis on one's own studies within a manuscript. Although conducting a “mini meta” within one's manuscript has been argued for in the past, this practice is still relatively rare and adoption is slow. We believe two deterrents are responsible. First, researchers may not think that it is legitimate to do a meta-analysis on a small number of studies. Second, researchers may think a meta-analysis is too complicated to do withou...
166 CitationsSource
#1Susan T. Fiske (Princeton University)H-Index: 87
#2Cydney H. Dupree (Princeton University)H-Index: 5
Last. Jillian K. Swencionis (Princeton University)H-Index: 8
view all 4 authors...
Hierarchies in the correlated forms of power (resources) and status (prestige) are constants that organize human societies. This article reviews relevant social psychological literature and identifies several converging results concerning power and status. Whether rank is chronically possessed or temporarily embodied, higher ranks create psychological distance from others, allow agency by the higher ranked, and exact deference from the lower ranked. Beliefs that status entails competence are ess...
29 CitationsSource
#1Jillian K. Swencionis (Princeton University)H-Index: 8
#2Susan T. Fiske (Princeton University)H-Index: 87
Abstract We hypothesized participants would adopt diverging impression management strategies when interacting with lower- versus higher-status others, to disconfirm status-based stereotypes of their own respective coldness or incompetence. In Study 1, downward comparers downplayed their own competence to appear warmer, and upward comparers downplayed their own warmth to appear more competent. In status comparisons with counter-stereotypical targets, Studies 2a and 2b showed impression management...
22 CitationsSource
#1Arnold K. Ho (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 15
#2Jim Sidanius (Harvard University)H-Index: 57
Last. Andrew L. Stewart (Clark University)H-Index: 9
view all 8 authors...
A new conceptualization and measurement of social dominance orientation-individual differences in the preference for group based hierarchy and inequality-is introduced. In contrast to previous measures of social dominance orientation that were designed to be unidimensional, the new measure (SDO7) embeds theoretically grounded subdimensions of SDO-SDO-Dominance (SDO-D) and SDO-Egalitarianism (SDO-E). SDO-D constitutes a preference for systems of group-based dominance in which high status groups f...
163 CitationsSource
#2Susan T. FiskeH-Index: 87
Last. Vincent YzerbytH-Index: 50
view all 3 authors...
The Stereotype Content Model (SCM) posits two fundamental dimensions of intergroup perception, warmth and competence, predicted by socio-structural dimensions of competition and status, respectively. However, the SCM has been challenged on claiming perceived competition as the socio-structural dimension that predicts perceived warmth. The current research improves by broadening warmth’s predictor (competition) to include both realistic and symbolic threat from Integrated Threat Theory (Study 1)....
36 CitationsSource
#1Nour Sami Kteily (NU: Northwestern University)H-Index: 16
#2Sarah Cotterill (Harvard University)H-Index: 4
Last. Robin Bergh (Uppsala University)H-Index: 8
view all 5 authors...
We investigated individual difference predictors of ascribing ingroup characteristics to negative and positive ambiguous targets. Studies 1 and 2 investigated events involving negative targets whos ...
28 CitationsSource
#1Krista Casler (F&M: Franklin & Marshall College)H-Index: 8
#2Lydia Bickel (F&M: Franklin & Marshall College)H-Index: 1
Last. Elizabeth Hackett (F&M: Franklin & Marshall College)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Recent and emerging technology permits psychologists today to recruit and test participants in more ways than ever before. But to what extent can behavioral scientists trust these varied methods to yield reasonably equivalent results? Here, we took a behavioral, face-to-face task and converted it to an online test. We compared the online responses of participants recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and via social media postings on Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit. We also recruited a sta...
608 CitationsSource
Cited By5
Newest
#1Nour Sami Kteily (NU: Northwestern University)H-Index: 16
#2Kaylene J. McClanahan (NU: Northwestern University)H-Index: 1
Human societies are organized into group-based hierarchies, with some groups enjoying the privileges of being on top and others struggling at the bottom. The position groups occupy in the hierarchy fundamentally shape their psychology, influencing their perception of and orientation towards the status quo and their perspectives and needs in conflict. Despite a growing body of interventions designed to reduce group-based conflict, the role of group power in shaping the effectiveness of these appr...
Source
#1Susan T. Fiske (Princeton University)H-Index: 87
#2Xuechunzi Bai (Princeton University)H-Index: 1
Status (respect, prestige) and power (resource control) arguably form two kinds of inequality. Status differences appear culturally reasonable as vertical inequality—with a common rationale: meritocracy (deservingness). High-status individuals and groups are accorded competence. Status differences divide people by inequality, but so do differences in power (sharing resource control). Power-sharing (or not) can be cooperative, peer interdependence, tending toward equality, or competitive rivalry,...
Source
#1Cory J. Clark (Durham University)H-Index: 6
#2Bo Winegard (Marietta College)H-Index: 7
AbstractWe argue that because of a long history of intergroup conflict and competition, humans evolved to be tribal creatures. Tribalism is not inherently bad, but it can lead to ideological thinki...
Source
#1Michael W. Kraus (Yale University)H-Index: 26
#2Brittany Torrez (Yale University)H-Index: 1
Last. Fariba Ghayebi (Yale University)H-Index: 1
view all 4 authors...
Economic inequality is at its highest point on record and is linked to poorer health and well-being across countries. The forces that perpetuate inequality continue to be studied, and here we examine how a person’s position within the economic hierarchy, their social class, is accurately perceived and reproduced by mundane patterns embedded in brief speech. Studies 1 through 4 examined the extent that people accurately perceive social class based on brief speech patterns. We find that brief spee...
1 CitationsSource
#2Joanna M. Drinane (UofU: University of Utah)H-Index: 1
Last. William Ming Liu (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 25
view all 5 authors...
1 CitationsSource
#1Michael W. KrausH-Index: 26
#2Ivuoma N. OnyeadorH-Index: 2
Last. Jennifer A. Richeson (Yale University)H-Index: 39
view all 5 authors...
Racial economic inequality is a foundational feature of the United States, yet many Americans appear oblivious to it. In the present work we consider the psychology underlying this collective willf...
3 CitationsSource
#1Cory J. Clark (Durham University)H-Index: 6
#2Brittany S. Liu (Kalamazoo College)H-Index: 5
Last. Peter H. Ditto (UCI: University of California, Irvine)H-Index: 37
view all 4 authors...
Humans evolved in the context of intense intergroup competition, and groups comprised of loyal members more often succeeded than groups comprised of nonloyal members. Therefore, selective pressures...
2 CitationsSource
#1Susan T. Fiske (Princeton University)H-Index: 87
#2Federica Durante (University of Milano-Bicocca)H-Index: 9
Status and power stratification seem virtually inevitable in human societies. The advantages of the powerful and higher status are exaggerated by inequality, increasing cross-class resentment. Across nations, high-SES people are stereotyped as competent but cold and low-SES people as incompetent (and sometimes as warm). So, upper classes feel disliked and lower classes feel disrespected. These societal stereotypes provide a rational account for inequality, a convenient target of resentment, and ...
2 CitationsSource