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Putting Values into Context

Published on Apr 1, 2020in Applied Psychology
· DOI :10.1111/APPS.12195
Peter B. Smith42
Estimated H-index: 42
(University of Sussex)
Abstract
  • References (15)
  • Citations (2)
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References15
Newest
#1Sharon Arieli (Open University of Israel)H-Index: 5
#2Lilach Sagiv (HUJI: Hebrew University of Jerusalem)H-Index: 24
Last. Sonia Roccas (Open University of Israel)H-Index: 22
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#1Ewa Skimina (Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw)H-Index: 2
#2Jan Cieciuch (Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw)H-Index: 21
Last. René Algesheimer (UZH: University of Zurich)H-Index: 15
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We identified behavioral signatures of the values distinguished in the Schwartz et al. refined value theory (2012). We examined behavioral signatures for two types of values, value states and value traits. We conducted two studies using innovative approaches. Study 1 used retrospective self-reports whereas Study 2 used self-reports in real time. In Study 1 (N = 703), we sought act frequency signatures of the 19 basic value traits that the Portrait Value Questionnaire-Revised (Schwartz, 2017) mea...
1 CitationsSource
#1Paul H. P. Hanel (University of Bath)H-Index: 5
#2Gregory R. Maio (University of Bath)H-Index: 37
Last. Antony Stephen Reid Manstead (Cardiff University)H-Index: 72
view all 9 authors...
Previous research found that the within-country variability of human values (e.g., equality, helpfulness) clearly outweighs between-country variability. Across three countries (Brazil, India, and the UK), the present research tested in student samples whether between-nation differences reside more in the behaviors used to concretely instantiate (i.e., exemplify or understand) values than in their importance as abstract ideals. In Study 1 (N = 630), we found several meaningful between-country dif...
6 CitationsSource
Leung and Morris (2015) propose conditions under which values, norms, and schemata drive cultural differences in behavior. They build on past theories about dimensions of situational strength to propose that personal values drive behavior more in weak situations and perceived norms drive behavior more in strong situations. Drawing on this analysis as well as two recent models of cultural tightness-looseness, country-level effects are predicted on the assumption that tighter cultures more frequen...
4 CitationsSource
#1Adam M. Grant (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 47
#2Nancy P. Rothbard (UPenn: University of Pennsylvania)H-Index: 20
Researchers have suggested that both ambiguity and values play important roles in shaping employees' proactive behaviors, but have not theoretically or empirically integrated these factors. Drawing on theories of situational strength and values, we propose that ambiguity constitutes a weak situation that strengthens the relationship between the content of employees" values and their proactivity. A field study of 204 employees and their direct supervisors in a water treatment plant provided suppo...
27 CitationsSource
#1Michele J. Gelfand (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 46
#2Jana L. Raver (Queen's University)H-Index: 15
Last. Susumu Yamaguchi (UTokyo: University of Tokyo)H-Index: 16
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With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and historical threats (e.g., high population density, resource scarcity, a history of territorial conflict, and disease and environmental threats), broad...
732 CitationsSource
#1Shalom H. Schwartz (HUJI: Hebrew University of Jerusalem)H-Index: 80
This article first gives a brief overview of my adventures in developing two theories of values and the methods to measure them. First came my theory of the basic values on which individuals in all cultures differ. Then, quite unexpectedly, the opportunity arose to develop a theory of cultural values on which societies differ. As the story unfolds, I tell of failures, triumphs, and challenges. Values research has expanded in the past two decades beyond my wildest early imaginings. The second sec...
147 CitationsSource
Many well-known psychological theories on diverse processes (e.g., moral and political judgment, prejudice, the self) ascribe vital roles to social values, but define values vaguely. The psychological functioning of values can be clarified by conceptualizing them as mental representations that operate at a system level, (abstract) value level, and an instantiation level. At the system level, values reflect motivational tensions described within Schwartz's [Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in t...
120 CitationsSource
#1Gregory R. MaioH-Index: 37
#2Ulrike Hahn (Cardiff University)H-Index: 29
Last. Wing-Yee Cheung (Cardiff University)H-Index: 10
view all 4 authors...
Across 4 experiments, the authors investigated the role of value instantiation in bridging the gap between abstract social values and behavior in specific situations. They predicted and found that participants engaged in more egalitarian behavior (point allocation using the minimal group paradigm) after contemplating a typical instantiation of the value of equality compared to an atypical instantiation or a control condition that simply made the value salient. This effect occurred when participa...
26 CitationsSource
#1Noga Sverdlik (Open University of Israel)H-Index: 6
#2Shaul Oreg (University of Haifa)H-Index: 17
ABSTRACT Internal motivational conflicts that arise in the context of imposed change were investigated through a personal values perspective. It is suggested that in the context of imposed change different aspects of the same value dimension will tend to come in conflict. As demonstrated in two studies, this conflict is manifested in what at a surface level appears as a weak relationship between values and reaction to the change. In Study 1, a field study of 107 employees, individuals' dispositi...
25 CitationsSource
Cited By2
Newest
#1Ute Stephan ('KCL': King's College London)H-Index: 18
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#1Sharon Arieli (HUJI: Hebrew University of Jerusalem)H-Index: 5
#2Lilach Sagiv (HUJI: Hebrew University of Jerusalem)H-Index: 24
Last. Sonia Roccas (Open University of Israel)H-Index: 22
view all 3 authors...
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