What are the psychological effects of using synthetic cannabinoids? A systematic review:
Background:Synthetic cannabinoids are, typically, full agonists at the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, and therefore considerably more potent than natural cannabis and may have correspondingly more serious psychological effects. Despite government sanctions against their production they continue to be available in ever-increasing varieties over the Internet. The psychological consequences of synthetic cannabinoid use are relatively unknown.Aim:The purpose of this study was to synthesise the available research on the psychological consequences of synthetic cannabinoid use.Method:A literature search of three databases was conducted in February 2018, including the following keywords: Spice, synthetic cannabis, cognition, affect, behaviour, psychosis, depression and anxiety.Results:Seventeen studies involving a variety of participants were eligible for inclusion: one controlled administration study, seven cross-sectional studies, five Internet surveys and four qualitative studies. The controlled administration stud...