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Sub-surface drip fertigation with conservation agriculture in a rice-wheat system: A breakthrough for addressing water and nitrogen use efficiency

Published on May 1, 2019in Agricultural Water Management3.54
· DOI :10.1016/j.agwat.2019.02.019
H.S. Sidhu4
Estimated H-index: 4
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
M.L. Jat23
Estimated H-index: 23
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
+ 6 AuthorsBruno Gérard21
Estimated H-index: 21
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
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Abstract
Abstract The future of the South Asia’s rice-wheat (RW) production system is at stake due to continuously depleting aquifers and increasing pressure on underground water under projected climate change scenario. Conventional management factors such as flood irrigation, intensive tillage and residue burning are threatening sustainability of RW system. With increasing adoption of conservation agriculture (CA), sub-surface drip fertigation (SSDF) provides an exceptional opportunity for complementing irrigation water saving benefits. Presently, there is no research evidence on optimum spacing and depth for drip laterals in a CA (direct drilling and residue mulch) based RW system around the globe. This study was therefore, planned to evaluate effects of residue mulch, different spacing and depths of laterals for SSDF on crop yield, irrigation water productivity (WPi), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and net returns for CA based RW system in a silt loam soil in northwestern India. Drip laterals were spaced either at 33.75 cm or 67.5 cm, and installation depths were 0, 15 or 20 cm beneath the soil surface and compared with conventional and zero tillage based flood-irrigated RW systems. Grain yield and irrigation water input in rice and wheat were generally similar under different SSDF treatments. Irrigation water savings were 48–53% in rice and 42–53% in wheat under combination of SSDF and CA compared to flood irrigation system. A similar trend in WPi was recorded in both the crops. Residue mulch contributed to higher irrigation water savings, wheat yield and WPi compared to no mulch. Both rice and wheat needed 20% less N fertilizer under SSDF system to obtain grain yields similar to that under flood irrigated crops. Net returns from SSDF system with 67.5 cm lateral spacing were significantly higher compared to flood irrigation system. In conclusion, SSDF system having laterals spaced at 67.5 cm and installed at 15 cm depth provides tangible benefits for substantial saving in irrigation water and energy and increasing NUE and net income for CA based RW system in South Asia.
  • References (20)
  • Citations (1)
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References20
Newest
Published on Mar 21, 2018in Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science1.68
H.S. Jat6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
Ashim Datta4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Central Soil Salinity Research Institute)
+ 10 AuthorsM.K. Gathala17
Estimated H-index: 17
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
ABSTRACTSoil quality degradation associated with resources scarcity is the major concern for the sustainability of conventional rice-wheat system in South Asia. Replacement of conventional management practices with conservation agriculture (CA) is required to improve soil quality. A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of CA on soil physical (bulk density, penetration resistance, infiltration) and chemical (N, P, K, S, micronutrients) properties after 4 years in North-West India. ...
Published on Jan 1, 2017in Paddy and Water Environment1.26
Rakesh Sharda4
Estimated H-index: 4
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University),
Gulshan Mahajan20
Estimated H-index: 20
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University)
+ 2 AuthorsBhagirath S. Chauhan36
Estimated H-index: 36
(UQ: University of Queensland)
Drip irrigation in dry-seeded rice (DSR) is a new water-saving cultivation technology; however, very little is known of its productivity and water-saving capacities. The study was conducted for 2 years (2013 and 2014) in a split-plot design in three replicates with treatment combinations of four irrigation regimes [drip irrigation at 1.5, 2.25, and 3.0× pan evaporation (Epan) and flood irrigation at 3.0× Epan] and three nitrogen (N) levels (120, 150, and 180 kg ha−1). Drip irrigation in DSR resu...
Published on Sep 1, 2016in Field Crops Research3.87
Naveen-Gupta1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CSU: Charles Sturt University),
Sudhir-Yadav6
Estimated H-index: 6
(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute)
+ 3 AuthorsPhilip Eberbach14
Estimated H-index: 14
(CSU: Charles Sturt University)
Abstract Depletion and/or degradation of natural resources, increasing farm labour scarcity, and high production cost are major threats to the rice-wheat cropping system of north-west India. Conservation agriculture (CA) is a potential solution which can be achieved by switching from puddling then transplanting of rice to dry seeding (DSR), together with changing from conventional tillage (CT) to zero tillage (ZT) for wheat with surface retention of rice residues. Whether the use of ZT for both ...
Published on Dec 1, 2015in Field Crops Research3.87
H.S. Sidhu6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Manpreet Singh9
Estimated H-index: 9
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University)
+ 6 AuthorsSarbjeet Singh12
Estimated H-index: 12
Abstract In the extensive rice–wheat system of north-west (NW) India, harvesting is by large combines and the rice residues are normally burnt after harvest, followed by irrigation and intensive tillage prior to sowing wheat. While in-field retention of crop residues can play an important role in replenishing soil quality and reducing environmental pollution from stubble burning, until recently, there has been no suitable technology for seeding wheat in rice residues. To address this need, a ser...
Published on Aug 1, 2015in Field Crops Research3.87
Rui Chen1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Shihezi University),
Wenhan Cheng1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Shihezi University)
+ 4 AuthorsFuyu Ma4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Shihezi University)
Abstract This objective of this two-year field study was to determine the effects of lateral spacing and irrigation amount on wheat yield and water use efficiency. The irrigation treatments consisted of three lateral spacings (R1, 0.30 m; R2, 0.60 m; and R3, 0.90 m) and four water amounts (W1, 3000 m 3 /ha; W2, 4500 m 3 /ha; W3, 6000 m 3 /ha; and W4, 7500 m 3 /ha). The plots were irrigated every 10 d during the growing season. The results showed that plant growth and grain yield both decreased a...
Published on Aug 1, 2014in Field Crops Research3.87
R.K. Jat7
Estimated H-index: 7
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
Tek B. Sapkota12
Estimated H-index: 12
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
+ 3 AuthorsRaj K. Gupta28
Estimated H-index: 28
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
Abstract Water, energy and labour scarcity, increasing cost of production, diminishing farm profits and uncertain weather events are major challenges faced by the farmers under intensive tillage based conventional rice–wheat (RW) production system of Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in South Asia. To address these challenges, conservation agriculture (CA) based crop management practices are being developed, adapted and promoted in the region. We evaluated agronomical productivity and economical profit...
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Journal of research
Yadvinder Singh1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
H. S. Thind13
Estimated H-index: 13
,
H.S. Sidhu4
Estimated H-index: 4
Rice-wheat (RW) system of the Indo-Gangetic Plains has played a significant role in the food security of India. However, sustainability of this important cropping system is at risk due to deterioration of soil health, mounting pressure on natural resources and emerging challenges of climate change. Zero tillage and innovations in crop residue management to avoid straw burning should assist in achieving sustainable productivity and allow farmers to reduce nutrient and water inputs, and reduce ris...
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Advances in Agronomy3.60
S. S. Kukal21
Estimated H-index: 21
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University),
M.L. Jat23
Estimated H-index: 23
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
Harminder S. Sidhu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University)
Abstract Serious water deficits are threatening agricultural sustainability in many regions of the South Asia (SA). While the increase in crop production of irrigated rice–wheat system in SA has been impressive since the 1970s, the low water productivity (WP) has led to the depletion of surface water and groundwaters. In this chapter we have discussed the availability of water resources in SA, identified the positive effects of soil and water management and crop genetic improvement on WP, and th...
Published on Oct 1, 2013in Agricultural Water Management3.54
Hari Ram9
Estimated H-index: 9
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University),
Vikas Dadhwal1
Estimated H-index: 1
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University)
+ 1 AuthorsHarinderjit Kaur1
Estimated H-index: 1
(PAU: Punjab Agricultural University)
Abstract Continuous cultivation with a rice ( Oryza sativa L.)–wheat cropping system in north-western India has led to an irrigation water crisis due to excessive withdrawal of underground water. Large scale on-farm burning of surplus rice residue by the farmers has also caused intense air pollution. Retaining rice residue as surface mulch as an alternative to burning could be useful for soil moisture conservation, reducing air pollution and improving soil organic matter level. A field experimen...
Published on Sep 1, 2013in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment3.95
M.K. Gathala17
Estimated H-index: 17
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
V. Kumar39
Estimated H-index: 39
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
+ 9 AuthorsD.K. Sharma14
Estimated H-index: 14
(Central Soil Salinity Research Institute)
Abstract Increasing scarcity of resources (labour, water, and energy) and cost of production, along with climate variability, are major challenges for the sustainability of rice–wheat system in the northwesten Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). We hypothesized that adopting the principles of conservation agriculture together with best crop management practices would improve system productivity and overall efficiency, resulting in a higher profitability. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the perform...
Cited By1
Newest
Published on Aug 1, 2019in Agricultural Water Management3.54
Raj Pal Meena3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Venkatesh Karnam + 4 AuthorsGyanendra Singh13
Estimated H-index: 13
Abstract Intensive cultivation of irrigated wheat in 30 m ha area is mainly causing the depletion of groundwater resources in India. This calls for urgent technological interventions to improve the water productivity of wheat for sustaining the profitability of farmers. Seventy-one genetically diverse wheat genotypes were screened for high water use efficiency (WUE) under limited soil moisture level at 60% of Cumulative Pan Evaporation (CPE) during 2015-16. Out of these best performing sixteen h...
Published on Jun 17, 2019
Balwinder-Singh10
Estimated H-index: 10
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center),
Andrew J. McDonald4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Cornell University)
+ 1 AuthorsBruno Gérard21
Estimated H-index: 21
(CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center)
Air pollution imposes enormous public health and economic burdens in northwest India. Groundwater conservation policies appear to be exacerbating the crisis by concentrating agricultural burning in the late fall with a 39% higher peak fire intensity occurring when meteorological conditions favour poor air quality. Reconciling food security, resource depletion and environmental quality tradeoffs is necessary for achieving sustainable development in the breadbasket region of India.
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