The genomes of polyextremophilic Cyanidiales contain 1% horizontally transferred genes with diverse adaptive functions
The role and extent of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotes are hotly disputed topics that impact our understanding regarding the origin of metabolic processes and the role of organelles in cellular evolution. We addressed this issue by analyzing 10 novel Cyanidiales genomes and determined that 1% of their gene inventory is HGT-derived. Numerous HGT candidates originated from polyextremophilic prokaryotes that live in similar habitats as the Cyanidiales and encodes functions related to polyextremophily. HGT candidates differ from native genes in GC-content, number of splice sites, and gene expression. HGT candidates are more prone to loss, which may explain the nonexistence of a eukaryotic pan-genome. Therefore, absence of a pan-genome and cumulative effects fail to provide substantive arguments against our hypothesis of recurring HGT followed by differential loss in eukaryotes. The maintenance of 1% HGTs, even under selection for genome reduction underlines the importance of non-endosymbiosis related foreign gene acquisition.