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CHAPTER 18 – The Parathyroids, Calcitonin, and Vitamin D

Published on Jan 1, 2000
· DOI :10.1016/B978-012747605-6/50019-5
Christopher G. Dacke1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract
  • References (100)
  • Citations (24)
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Osteoclasts freshly isolated from embryonic chicks have been examined for calcitonin receptors using radio-iodine-labeled salmon calcitonin. Calcitonin binding to chick osteoclasts could not be shown by either autoradiography or biochemical binding studies. Furthermore, calcitonin did not stimulate cyclic AMP production. By contrast, rat osteoclasts have abundant calcitonin receptors, and a sensitive cyclic AMP response to calcitonin has been shown previously. It is concluded that chick osteocla...
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Mixed bone cell cultures obtained by sequential collagenase-trypsin digestion of newborn chick, rat, and mouse calvaria responded to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) with a dose-dependent increase in cyclic AMP formation. The amplitude of response to CGRP in each species was less than that to parathyroid hormone (PTH). The CGRP effect was not the result of an action as a weak calcitonin agonist, since in most instances a calcitonin effect was not observed. Only in early digests of mouse ca...
71 CitationsSource
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In order to characterize an avian parathyroid hormone gene, a λgt10 cDNA library constructed from chicken parathyroid gland mRNA was screened with a human preproparathyroid hormone (preproPTH) cDNA probe. Nucleotide sequence analysis of three independent clones confirmed that they encoded chicken preproPTH. This analysis, complemented by primer extension and Northern blot analysis of mRNA, demonstrated a 5′-untranslated region for chicken preproPTH of 127 nucleotides, a coding region of 357 nucl...
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Chicken calcitonin (cCT) has recently been synthesized according to nucleotide sequence data. We have investigated the in vitro effects of this hormone on the activity of disaggregated, neonatal rat and embryonic chick osteoclasts. While synthetic cCT inhibited bone resorption by neonatal rat osteoclasts at concentrations as low as 0.1 pg/ml, it failed to produce a significant reduction in bone resorption by embryonic chick osteoclasts, even at concentrations as high as 1 μg/ml. Similarly, cCT a...
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The biologic activities of human parathyroid hormone-related protein [hPTHrP(1–34] and bovine PTH [bPTH(1-34)] are remarkably similar despite marked sequence divergence in their primary binding domain, residues 25–34. Chicken PTHrP (cPTHrP) is identical to hPTHrP through residue 21. However, in the 25–34 region, cPTHrP displays three fewer basic residues than hPTHrP and contains five residues not present in any other member of the PTH/PTHrP family. To assess the biologic consequences of these st...
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Administration of estradiol to male Japanese quail induced the formation of medullary bone in the marrow cavities of the bird's femora and tibiae. This was accompanied by increased serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase activity. We examined the effects of two structurally distinct “antiestrogens” on the estrogen-induced formation of medullary bone in this quail model. Trioxifene (LY133314) and tamoxifen are members of a group of compounds commonly referred to as antiestro...
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#1Sudha Pandalai (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 1
Slices of osteoclast-enriched endosteal surfaces of 3 week chick tibia were cultured for 1-3 days. Osteoclasts on the bone surface were made visible by acridine orange fluorescence. Osteoclast area was measured by image analysis. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) caused osteoclasts to increase in area about 40%, and calcitonin (CT) caused a decrease in area also of about 40%. Subsequent addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP to PTH- or to CT-treated cells resulted in a further change of 40 and 30%, respective...
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A parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is the probable cause of humoral hypercalcemia in malignancy, but its normal physiologic role remains unknown. Since current evidence suggests that PTHrP may have a role in embryonic development, we cloned a genomic fragment that encodes chicken PTHrP (cPTHrP) and studied the expression of PTHrP in developing chick embryos. Blot hybridization of chicken genomic DNA with a cPTHrP genomic DNA probe showed a single band, suggesting that a single-copy ge...
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The question of whether any of the agents known to activate bone resorption in vivo or in organ cultures acts directly on the osteoclast or via intermediate target cells that secondarily secrete locally paracrine factors is important for our understanding of bone remodeling. In an attempt to clarify this issue for some of the agents, we have taken advantage of the recent progress in obtaining and culturing relatively pure populations of osteoclasts. We performed an in vitro bone-resorbing assay ...
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Carboxyl-terminal peptides from parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) have been studied for their effect on bone resorption by osteoclasts isolated from 15 day embryonic chickens. Basal bone resorption by chicken osteoclasts was directly inhibited by chicken and human PTHrP-(107–139) and the pentapeptide PTHrP-(107–111). The chicken and human analogs were equipotent. Both the number of resorption pits and the total area resorbed per bone slice were reduced by PTHrP-(107–139), but it did no...
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Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg MB R3T 2N2, Canada; Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas AM Department of Agrobiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University, Niigata 9502181, Japan; Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayatteville, AR 72704-4678, USA *Corresponding author: kim@cc.umanitoba.ca
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