Experimental Investigation and Numerical Simulation of CO2–Brine–Rock Interactions during CO2 Sequestration in a Deep Saline Aquifer
CO2 mineralization is a long-term and secure solution for geological CO2 storage that primarily depends on the CO2–brine–rock interaction during CO2 sequestration in subsurface formations. In this study, lab experiments were conducted to investigate the CO2–brine–rock interaction over short timescales, and numerical simulations were performed to reveal dynamic interactions and equilibrium interactions by applying TOUGHREACT and PHREEQC, respectively. In the experiments, the main ions of HCO3− and Ca2+ were detected in the solution, and calcite dissolution and dawsonite precipitation were observed from SEM images. The simulation results showed that the CO2 dissolution and the solution pH were affected by the temperatures, pressures, types of solutions, and solution concentrations and were further influenced by mineral dissolution and precipitation. The results of the equilibrium simulation showed that the dissolved minerals were albite, anhydrite, calcite, Ca-montmorillonite, illite, K-feldspar, and chlorite, and the precipitated minerals were dolomite, kaolinite, and quartz, which led to HCO3−, K+, and Na+ being the main ions in solutions. The results of the dynamic simulation showed that calcite and dolomite dissolved in the early period, while other minerals began to dissolve or precipitate after 100 years. The dissolved minerals were mainly albite, kaolinite, K-feldspar, and chlorite, and precipitated minerals were Ca-montmorillonite, illite, and quartz. Anhydrite and pyrite did not change during the simulation period, and the main ions were HCO3−, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the simulation period. This study provides an effective approach for analyzing the CO2–brine–rock interaction at different stages during CO2 storage, and the results are helpful for understanding the CO2 mineralization processes in deep saline aquifers.