Gray and white matter changes in presymptomatic genetic frontotemporal dementia: a longitudinal MRI study.
Abstract In genetic frontotemporal dementia, cross-sectional studies have identified profiles of presymptomatic neuroanatomical loss for C9orf72 repeat expansion, MAPT, and GRN mutations. In this study, we characterize longitudinal gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) brain changes in presymptomatic frontotemporal dementia. We included healthy carriers of C9orf72 repeat expansion (n = 12), MAPT (n = 15), GRN (n = 33) mutations, and related noncarriers (n = 53), that underwent magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 2-year follow-up. We analyzed cross-sectional baseline, follow-up, and longitudinal GM and WM changes using voxel-based morphometry and cortical thickness analysis in SPM and tract-based spatial statistics in FSL. Compared with noncarriers, C9orf72 repeat expansion carriers showed lower GM volume in the cerebellum and insula, and WM differences in the anterior thalamic radiation, at baseline and follow-up. MAPT mutation carriers showed emerging GM temporal lobe changes and longitudinal WM degeneration of the uncinate fasciculus. GRN mutation carriers did not show presymptomatic neurodegeneration. This study shows distinct presymptomatic cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of GM and WM changes across C9orf72 repeat expansion, MAPT, and GRN mutation carriers compared with noncarriers.