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Cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular disease - The past, present, and future

Published on Mar 1, 2019in Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 6.16
· DOI :10.1016/j.pcad.2019.01.002
Leonard A. Kaminsky27
Estimated H-index: 27
(BSU: Ball State University),
Ross Arena52
Estimated H-index: 52
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)
+ 4 AuthorsRobert Ross47
Estimated H-index: 47
(UM: University of Michigan)
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Abstract
Abstract The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is now well established and it is increasingly being recognized as an essential variable which should be assessed in health screenings. The key findings that have established the clinical significance of CRF are reviewed in this report, along with an overview of the current relevance of exercise as a form of medicine that can provide a number of positive health outcomes, including increasing CRF. Current assessment options for assessing CRF are also reviewed, including the direct measurement via cardiopulmonary exercise testing which now can be interpreted with age and sex-specific reference values. Future directions for the use of CRF and related measures are presented.
  • References (95)
  • Citations (1)
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References95
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Published on Jan 1, 2019in Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 6.16
Leonard A. Kaminsky27
Estimated H-index: 27
(BSU: Ball State University),
Jonathan Myers74
Estimated H-index: 74
(Stanford University),
Ross A. Arena6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract Healthy living (HL) behaviors and characteristics are central to both preventing and treating a myriad of chronic diseases; a key HL characteristic is cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Knowing an individual's CRF provides vital information when assessing health status and formulating a plan of care. Normative reference values as well as thresholds that denote varying degrees of health and future risk exist for measures of CRF. However, improving upon the precision of CRF reference standa...
Published on Nov 1, 2018in Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 6.16
Cemal Ozemek6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago),
Deepika Laddu6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)
+ 6 AuthorsSteven N. Blair140
Estimated H-index: 140
(USC: University of South Carolina)
Abstract The cardiovascular disease (CVD) pandemic has placed considerable strain on healthcare systems, quality of life, and physical function, while remaining the leading cause of death globally. Decades of scientific investigations have fortified the protective effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), exercise training, and physical activity (PA) against the development of CVD. This review will summarize recent efforts that have made significant strides in; 1) the application of novel anal...
Published on Nov 1, 2018in Journal of the American College of Cardiology 18.64
Mary T. Imboden4
Estimated H-index: 4
(BSU: Ball State University),
Matthew P. Harber24
Estimated H-index: 24
(BSU: Ball State University)
+ 3 AuthorsLeonard A. Kaminsky27
Estimated H-index: 27
(BSU: Ball State University)
Abstract Background There is a well-established inverse relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and mortality. However, this relationship has almost exclusively been studied using estimated CRF. Objectives This study aimed to assess the association of directly measured CRF, obtained using cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) testing with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality in apparently healthy men and women. Methods Participants included 4,137 self-referred appa...
Published on Jun 2, 2018
Alban De Schutter19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UQ: University of Queensland),
Sergey Kachur12
Estimated H-index: 12
+ 5 AuthorsRichard V. Milani64
Estimated H-index: 64
(UQ: University of Queensland)
Assessments of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in coronary heart disease (CHD) cohorts usually examine mortality in aggregate. The current study examines the prognosis and characteristics of patients who enrolled and completed CR, stratified by their level of improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) by examining the characteristics, outcomes and predictors of non-response in CRF (NonRes) compared to low-responders (LowRes) and high-Responders (HighRes) after CR. 1171 CHD patients were referred...
Published on May 1, 2018in European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 5.64
Christina Grüne de Souza e Silva2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Stanford University),
Leonard A. Kaminsky27
Estimated H-index: 27
(BSU: Ball State University)
+ 5 AuthorsJonathan Myers74
Estimated H-index: 74
(Stanford University)
BackgroundMaximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is a powerful predictor of health outcomes. Valid and portable reference values are integral to interpreting measured VO2max; however, available reference standards lack validation and are specific to exercise mode. This study was undertaken to develop and validate a single equation for normal standards for VO2max for the treadmill or cycle ergometer in men and women.MethodsHealthy individuals (N = 10,881; 67.8% men, 20–85 years) who performed a maximal c...
Published on Jan 1, 2018
Jonathan Myers74
Estimated H-index: 74
(Stanford University),
Rachelle Doom2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 4 AuthorsDavid H. Rehkopf31
Estimated H-index: 31
(Stanford University)
Abstract Objective To determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and annual health care costs in Veterans. Patients and Methods The sample included 9942 subjects (mean age, 59±11 years) undergoing a maximal exercise test for clinical reasons between January 2005 and December 2012. Cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as a percentage of age-predicted peak metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved, was categorized in quartiles. Total and annualized health care costs, derived fro...
Published on Sep 26, 2017in Journal of the American College of Cardiology 18.64
Maurizio D. Guazzi67
Estimated H-index: 67
,
Francesco Bandera14
Estimated H-index: 14
+ 2 AuthorsRoss A. Arena6
Estimated H-index: 6
Abstract Compared with traditional exercise tests, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides a thorough assessment of exercise integrative physiology involving the pulmonary, cardiovascular, muscular, and cellular oxidative systems. Due to the prognostic ability of key variables, CPET applications in cardiology have grown impressively to include all forms of exercise intolerance, with a predominant focus on heart failure with reduced or with preserved ejection fraction. As impaired cardia...
Published on Jul 1, 2017in Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 6.16
Jonathan Myers74
Estimated H-index: 74
(Stanford University),
Leonard A. Kaminsky27
Estimated H-index: 27
(BSU: Ball State University)
+ 3 AuthorsRoss Arena52
Estimated H-index: 52
(UIC: University of Illinois at Chicago)
Abstract Existing normal standards for maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) are problematic because they tend to be population specific, lack normal distribution and portability, and are poorly represented by women. The objective of the current study was to apply the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Data Base (FRIEND) Registry to improve upon previous regression formulas for normal standards for VO 2 max using treadmill testing. Maximal treadmill tests were performed in 77...
Published on Jul 1, 2017in Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 6.16
Matthew P. Harber24
Estimated H-index: 24
(BSU: Ball State University),
Leonard A. Kaminsky27
Estimated H-index: 27
(BSU: Ball State University)
+ 4 AuthorsRobert Ross47
Estimated H-index: 47
(Queen's University)
Abstract Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been one of the most widely examined physiological variables, particularly as it relates to functional capacity and human performance. Over the past three decades, CRF has emerged as a strong, independent predictor of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. The evidence supporting the prognostic use of CRF is so powerful that the American Heart Association recently advocated for the routine assessment of CRF as a clinical vital sign. Interestingly, ...