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Genetic modification of spikelet arrangement in wheat increases grain number without significantly affecting grain weight

Published on Apr 1, 2019in Molecular Genetics and Genomics2.88
· DOI :10.1007/s00438-018-1523-5
Gizaw M. Wolde2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Leibniz Association),
Martin Mascher25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Leibniz Association),
Thorsten Schnurbusch25
Estimated H-index: 25
(MLU: Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg)
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Abstract
Crop yield is determined by the acquisition and allocation of photoassimilates in sink organs. Therefore, genetic modification of sink size is essential for understanding the complex signaling network regulating sink strength and source activities. Sink size in wheat depends on the number of spikelets per spike, floret/grain number per spikelet as well as the grain weight or dry matter accumulation. Hence, increasing spikelet number and improving sink size are targets for wheat breeding. The main objective of the present work was to genetically modify the wheat spike architecture, i.e., the sink size by introgressing the ‘Miracle wheat’ or the bht-A1 allele into an elite durum wheat cv. Floradur. After four generations of backcrossing to the recurrent parent, Floradur (FL), we have successfully developed Near Isogenic Lines (NILs) with a modified spikelet arrangement thereby increasing spikelet and grain number per spike. Genotyping of bht-A1 NILs using the Genotyping-By-Sequencing approach revealed that the size of the introgressed donor segments carrying bht-A1 ranged from 2.3 to 38 cM. The size of the shortest donor segment introgressed into bht-A1 NILs was estimated to be 9.8 mega base pairs (Mbp). Phenotypic analysis showed that FL-bht-A1-NILs (BC3F2 and BC3F3) carry up to seven additional spikelets per spike, leading to up to 29% increase in spike dry weight at harvest (SDWh). The increased SDWh was accompanied by up to 23% more grains per spike. More interestingly, thousand kernel weight (TKW) did not show significant differences between FL-bht-A1-NILs and Floradur, suggesting that besides increasing spikelet number, bht-A1 could also be targeted for increasing grain yield in wheat. Our study suggests that the genetic modification of spikelet number in wheat can be an entry point for improving grain yield, most interestingly and also unexpectedly without the trade-off effects on TKW. Hence, FL-bht-A1-NILs are not only essential for increasing grain number, but also for understanding the molecular and genetic mechanism of the source–sink interaction for a clearer picture of the complex signaling network regulating sink strength and source activities.
  • References (87)
  • Citations (1)
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References87
Newest
Published on 2018in Genome Biology14.03
Michael Alaux12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Université Paris-Saclay),
Jane Rogers10
Estimated H-index: 10
+ 7 AuthorsCélia Michotey5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Université Paris-Saclay)
The Wheat@URGI portal has been developed to provide the international community of researchers and breeders with access to the bread wheat reference genome sequence produced by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium. Genome browsers, BLAST, and InterMine tools have been established for in-depth exploration of the genome sequence together with additional linked datasets including physical maps, sequence variations, gene expression, and genetic and phenomic data from other internatio...
Published on Sep 1, 2018in Plant Journal5.73
Zifeng Guo4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Leibniz Association),
Dijun Chen19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Leibniz Association)
+ 2 AuthorsThorsten Schnurbusch25
Estimated H-index: 25
(MLU: Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg)
Published on Jul 1, 2018in Euphytica1.53
M. P. Alonso1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
N. E. Mirabella2
Estimated H-index: 2
+ 2 AuthorsAna C. Pontaroli13
Estimated H-index: 13
Spike fertility index (SF) has been proposed as a promising trait to be used as a selection criterion in wheat breeding programs aimed at increasing grain yield, but no actual evidence of its successful application has been reported. In this study, 146 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between ‘Baguette 10’ and ‘Klein Chaja’, Argentinean spring bread wheat cultivars with contrasting SF, were evaluated during three crop seasons (2013, 2014 and 2015) at Balcarce, Argentina. Grain yield...
Published on Feb 14, 2018in The Plant Cell8.63
Laura E. Dixon4
Estimated H-index: 4
(JIC: John Innes Centre),
Julian R Greenwood1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)
+ 7 AuthorsScott A. Boden11
Estimated H-index: 11
(JIC: John Innes Centre)
The flowers of major cereals are arranged on reproductive branches known as spikelets, which group together to form an inflorescence. Diversity for inflorescence architecture has been exploited during domestication to increase crop yields, and genetic variation for this trait has potential to further boost grain production. Multiple genes that regulate inflorescence architecture have been identified by studying alleles that modify gene activity or dosage; however, little is known in wheat. Here,...
Published on Jun 1, 2017in Development5.76
Julian R. Greenwood2
Estimated H-index: 2
(ANU: Australian National University),
E. Jean Finnegan30
Estimated H-index: 30
(CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)
+ 2 AuthorsSteve M. Swain10
Estimated H-index: 10
(CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)
The advantages of free threshing in wheat led to the selection of the domesticated Q allele, which is now present in almost all modern wheat varieties. Q and the pre-domestication allele, q , encode an AP2 transcription factor, with the domesticated allele conferring a free-threshing character and a subcompact (i.e. partially compact) inflorescence (spike). We demonstrate that mutations in the miR172 binding site of the Q gene are sufficient to increase transcript levels via a reduction in miRNA...
Published on Jun 1, 2017in Development5.76
Juan Manuel Debernardi3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UC: University of California),
Huiqiong Lin5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UC: University of California)
+ 2 AuthorsJorge Dubcovsky79
Estimated H-index: 79
(HHMI: Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
Wheat domestication from wild species involved mutations in the Q gene. The q allele (wild wheats) is associated with elongated spikes and hulled grains, whereas the mutant Q allele (domesticated wheats) confers subcompact spikes and free-threshing grains. Previous studies showed that Q encodes an AP2-like transcription factor, but the causal polymorphism of the domestication traits remained unclear. Here, we show that the interaction between microRNA172 (miR172) and the Q allele is reduced by a...
Published on Apr 1, 2017in New Phytologist7.30
Zifeng Guo4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Leibniz Association),
Dijun Chen19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Leibniz Association)
+ 3 AuthorsThorsten Schnurbusch25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Leibniz Association)
Summary Increasing grain yield is still the main target of wheat breeding; yet today's wheat plants utilize less than half of their yield potential. Owing to the difficulty of determining grain yield potential in a large population, few genetic factors regulating floret fertility (i.e. the difference between grain yield potential and grain number) have been reported to date. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) by quantifying 54 traits (16 floret fertility traits an...
Published on Mar 1, 2017in Field Crops Research3.87
Ariel Ferrante8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Lleida),
Julia Cartelle2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Lleida)
+ 1 AuthorsGustavo A. Slafer58
Estimated H-index: 58
(University of Lleida)
Physiological bases of Mediterranean wheat yield improvements have been less explored than in other regions, particularly so during the period following the Green Revolution. Due to the common terminal stress of Mediterranean regions, it could be hypothesized that contemporary cultivars would exhibit improved average grain weight and yield stability compared with a traditional cultivar. Despite the lack of clear evidence in the literature, farmers in Mediterranean regions may prefer growing trad...
Published on Jan 1, 2017in Nature Genetics25.45
Helmy M. Youssef5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Kai Eggert6
Estimated H-index: 6
+ 12 AuthorsGeetha Govind9
Estimated H-index: 9
Thorsten Schnurbusch, Helmy Youssef and colleagues show that VRS2, a transcription factor of the SHI family, regulates floral organ patterning and phase duration during spike development in barley. Their data establish a link between the SHI protein family and sucrose metabolism during organ growth and development.
Cited By1
Newest
Published on Sep 6, 2019in Genes3.33
Junchang Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Zhixin Jiao1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 6 AuthorsJi-shan Niu3
Estimated H-index: 3
Tillering and spike differentiation are two key events for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A study on the transcriptomes and microRNA group profiles of wheat at the two key developmental stages will bring insight into the molecular regulation mechanisms. Guomai 301 is a representative excellent new high yield wheat cultivar in the Henan province in China. The transcriptomes and microRNA (miRNA) groups of tiller primordia (TPs), stem tips (STs), and young spikes (YSs) in Guomai 301 were compared to...
Published on Jun 28, 2019in Theoretical and Applied Genetics3.93
Saarah Kuzay (UC Davis: University of California, Davis), Yunfeng Xu (KSU: Kansas State University)+ 12 AuthorsNoah DeWitt1
Estimated H-index: 1
(NCSU: North Carolina State University)
Key message A high-resolution genetic map combined with haplotype analyses identified a wheat ortholog of rice gene APO1 as the best candidate gene for a 7AL locus affecting spikelet number per spike.
Published on Aug 21, 2019in Theoretical and Applied Genetics3.93
Jian Ma18
Estimated H-index: 18
(Sichuan Agricultural University),
Puyang Ding2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Sichuan Agricultural University)
+ 16 AuthorsYaxi Liu15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Sichuan Agricultural University)
Key message A major and stably expressed QTL for spikelet number per spike identified in a 2-cM interval on chromosome arm 2DS was validated using two populations with different genetic backgrounds.