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Body Composition Changes During Pregnancy and Effects of Physical Exercise

Published on Jan 1, 2019
· DOI :10.1007/978-3-319-91032-1_4
Nuno M. Pimenta1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Mireille N. M. van Poppel37
Estimated H-index: 37
(University of Graz)
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Abstract
The study of body composition is a fascinating branch of the biological sciences where research and clinical practice go hand in hand. A strong theoretical background is needed to support the assessment and interpretation of body composition measurements, in order to have an impact and usefulness in the clinical setting. Body composition is a key component of health-related fitness with physical, morphological, and particularly important health-related implications during pregnancy. Pregnancy poses a major challenge for the study of body composition, as several techniques and overall methods and related assumptions are often not applicable, and pregnancy therefore requires specific assessment approaches. In the present chapter, we present a look into body composition fundamentals, how body composition can be assessed during pregnancy and what adaptations should be taken into consideration in the assessment and interpretation of body composition data. In the final section of the present chapter, a focus will be put on the effect of exercise on body composition during pregnancy.
  • References (157)
  • Citations (1)
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References157
Newest
Published on Jun 1, 2018in Reproductive Sciences 2.56
Julie Phillips7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UVM: University of Vermont),
Carole A. McBride6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UVM: University of Vermont)
+ 2 AuthorsIra M. Bernstein33
Estimated H-index: 33
(UVM: University of Vermont)
Subclinical vascular dysfunction is increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The evidence linking indices of obesity and vascular dysfunction is mixed. As an example, some data suggest that adiposity may be a better predictor of endothelial dysfunction than body mass index (BMI). The aim of the current study is to compare the association of obesity, as evaluated by BMI, and a direct measure of body fat to biophysical paramete...
Published on Feb 1, 2018in Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine 1.57
Isabel Friedmann2
Estimated H-index: 2
(McGill University),
Jacques Balayla8
Estimated H-index: 8
(UdeM: Université de Montréal)
AbstractObjective: The study of the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and infant mortality is riddled with methodological concerns, particularly with limitations in accounting for gestational age-specific weight gain. In our study, we developed a new model, which accounts for gestational age, to determine whether insufficient or excessive GWG is associated with an increased risk of infant death amongst women with normal prepregnancy BMI (18.5–24.9 kg/m2).Methods: We developed and...
Published on Jan 1, 2018in Clinical Chemistry 6.89
Krasimira Aleksandrova31
Estimated H-index: 31
,
Dariush Mozaffarian113
Estimated H-index: 113
(Tufts University),
Tobias Pischon67
Estimated H-index: 67
BACKGROUND: The worldwide rise of obesity has provoked intensified research to better understand its pathophysiology as a means for disease prevention. Several biomarkers that may reflect various pathophysiological pathways that link obesity and cardiometabolic diseases have been identified over the past decades. CONTENT: We summarize research evidence regarding the role of established and novel obesity-related biomarkers, focusing on recent epidemiological evidence for detrimental associations ...
Published on Jan 1, 2018in Diabetologia 7.11
Nina Lindell2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Linköping University),
Annelie Carlsson22
Estimated H-index: 22
(Lund University)
+ 1 AuthorsUlf Samuelsson26
Estimated H-index: 26
(Linköping University)
Aims/hypothesis Genetic and environmental factors are believed to cause type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain on the subsequent risk of childhood type 1 diabetes.
Published on Dec 2, 2017in Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine 1.57
Gabriele Piuri2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
E. Ferrazzi38
Estimated H-index: 38
(Boston Children's Hospital)
+ 3 AuthorsAttilio Francesco Speciani3
Estimated H-index: 3
Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess longitudinal changes of bioimpedance analysis compared with anthropometric measurements in low-risk pregnant woman recruited in the first trimester and to observe possible differences in these indices in women who developed high-risk pregnancies.Materials and methods: Bioimpedance indices for the three trimesters of pregnancies were calculated separately for uneventful pregnancies delivered of newborns > the 10th centile. These findings were compared ...
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Placenta 2.77
S. Chang2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Albert Einstein College of Medicine),
Laura Lodico1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Albert Einstein College of Medicine),
Zev Williams10
Estimated H-index: 10
(Columbia University)
Abstract Despite the vital and diverse roles of the placenta, remarkably little is known about its actual composition. Moreover, as placentophagy becomes increasingly popular, understanding the nutritional and heavy metal composition of the human placenta has practical implications. Here we evaluated the carbohydrate, sugar, protein, fat, cholesterol, vitamin, and heavy metal composition of the human placenta from uncomplicated singleton pregnancies and found that it contains a significant amoun...
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Reproductive Health 2.29
Yanxia Wang1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
Jie Mao1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Lanzhou University)
+ 3 AuthorsSimin Chen1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Lanzhou University)
The relationship between maternal body compositions and birth weight was not definite. Fat Mass (FM) and Fat Free Mass (FFM) can accurately reflect the maternal body fat compositions and have been considered as better predictors of birth weight. Despite its potential role, no studies have been described the maternal compositions during pregnancy in East Asian women previously. We investigated the correlation between birth weight and Maternal body composition including fat mass (FM) and fat free ...
Published on Sep 6, 2017in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6.57
Stephanie A. Leonard15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of California, Berkeley),
Kathleen M. Rasmussen44
Estimated H-index: 44
(Cornell University)
+ 1 AuthorsBarbara Abrams41
Estimated H-index: 41
(University of California, Berkeley)
Published on Aug 1, 2017in Pediatric Obesity 3.71
Satoru Ikenoue5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Keio: Keio University),
Feizal Waffarn19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UCI: University of California, Irvine)
+ 7 AuthorsPathik D. Wadhwa46
Estimated H-index: 46
SummaryBackground Newborns exhibit substantial variation in gestational age-adjusted and sex-adjusted fat mass proportion. The antecedent characteristics of fetal body composition that are associated with newborn fat mass proportion are poorly understood. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether a composite measure of fetal fat mass is prospectively associated with newborn adiposity. Methods In a longitudinal study of 109 low-risk pregnancies, fetal ultrasonography was performed ...
Published on Jul 27, 2017in PLOS ONE 2.78
Delphine Mitanchez16
Estimated H-index: 16
,
S. Jacqueminet15
Estimated H-index: 15
+ 8 AuthorsMarie-Aline Charles58
Estimated H-index: 58
Objective: To discriminate the effect of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes on birth weight and adipose tissue of the newborn. Methods: Normal BMI women (group N, n = 243; 18.5≤ BMI<25 kg/m2) and obese women (group Ob, n = 253; BMI≥30 kg/m2) were recruited in a prospective study between 15 and 18 weeks of gestation. All women were submitted to a 75g oral glucose tolerance test in the second and third trimester. First trimester fasting blood glucose was also obtained from Ob women. All wom...
Cited By1
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Published on Jan 1, 2019
Rita Santos-Rocha6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Isabel Corrales Gutiérrez1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsSimona Pajaujiene1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Lithuanian Sports University)
Physical exercise should be part of an active lifestyle during pregnancy and the puerperium, as shown by growing evidence on its benefits for the health of pregnant women and newborns. Appropriate exercise testing and exercise prescription are needed to tailor effective and safe exercise programs. Exercise testing and prescription in pregnancy is the plan of exercise and fitness-related activities designed to meet the health and fitness goals and motivations of the pregnant woman. It should addr...