Dehydration stress responses of yeasts Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Lachancea thermotolerans: Effects of glutathione and trehalose biosynthesis
Abstract In food industry and winemaking, the use of active dehydrated yeast (ADY) Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a frequent practice because of the long-term stability and high efficiency of ADY. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest for new yeasts strains, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii (Td), Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Mp) and Lachancea thermotolerans (Lt). However, the yeasts transformation processes into the solidified form generate several stresses that reduce the cell viability. In this case, understanding the phenomena of yeast cell resistance before, during and after dehydration is of great importance. In this study we analyzed two compounds associated with resistance to stress and produced by cells, glutathione (total, oxidized and reduced) and trehalose, at different stages of the process. The impact of growing and dehydration conditions on cell viability was analyzed by flow cytometry and two-photon laser scanning microscopy. The results showed that cells naturally enriched in glutathione or trehalose acquired resistance to dehydration, preventing the oxidation of glutathione in a growth/dehydration condition dependent manner. This is the first time that simultaneous metabolic and dehydration responses were observed in three non- Saccharomyces strains. These findings represent an opportunity to better understand the yeast's dehydration resistance phenomena and thus to promote the efficient industrial production of new dried yeasts.