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The Weevil Fauna Preserved in Burmese Amber—Snapshot of a Unique, Extinct Lineage (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea)

Published on Dec 20, 2018in Diversity
· DOI :10.3390/d11010001
Dave J. Clarke6
Estimated H-index: 6
,
Ajay Limaye1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsRolf G. Oberprieler11
Estimated H-index: 11
Sources
Abstract
Only a few weevils have been described from Burmese amber, and although most have been misclassified, they show unusual and specialised characters unknown in extant weevils. In this paper, we present the results of a study of a much larger and more diverse selection of Burmese amber weevils. We prepared all amber blocks to maximise visibility of structures and examined these with high-magnification light microscopy as well as CT scanning (selected specimens). We redescribe most previously described taxa and describe 52 new species in 26 new genera, accompanied by photographs. We compare critical characters of these weevils with those of extant taxa and outline the effects of distortion on their preservation and interpretation. We conclude that only two weevil families are thus far represented in Burmese amber, Nemonychidae and a newly recognised family, Mesophyletidae, which appears closely related to Attelabidae but cannot be accommodated in this family. The geniculate antennae and long rostrum with exodont mandibles of most Mesophyletidae indicate that they were highly specialised phytophages of early angiosperms preserved in the amber, likely ovipositing in flowers or seeds. This weevil fauna appears to represent an extinct mid-Cretaceous ecosystem and fills a critical gap in the fossil record of weevils.
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References63
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#1Andrei A. Legalov (Altai State University)H-Index: 13
ABSTRACTIn this article, two new tribes, Burmomaceratini n. trib. with type genus Burmomacer n. gen. and Burmocorynini n. trib. with type genus Burmocorynus n. gen., two new genera, Burmomacer n. g...
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#1George O. Poinar (OSU: Oregon State University)H-Index: 6
#2Fernando E. Vega (USDA: United States Department of Agriculture)H-Index: 36
Last. Andrei A. Legalov (Altai State University)H-Index: 13
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ABSTRACTAn ambrosia beetle described as Palaeotylus femoralis n. gen et sp. belonging to a new subfamily (Palaeotylinae n. subfam.: Coleoptera: Platypodidae) is described from Cretaceous Burmese amber. It differs from other subfamilies by the loose antennal club, 6-articled funicle, coarsely faceted eyes, tibiae with teeth at apex, bilobed meso- and meta-tarsomeres 2 and 3 and tarsomere 1 shorter than tarsomeres 2–4 combined. This is the first described Platypodidae from Burmese amber and the ol...
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#1Andrei A. Legalov (Altai State University)H-Index: 13
Abstract An auger beetle, Poinarinius burmaensis gen. et sp. nov. of the subfamily Dinoderinae (Bostrichidae) is described from Cretaceous Burmese amber. The new genus differs from other genera of this subfamily by the concave anterior margin of the pronotum, head visible from above and wider than the anterior margin of the pronotum, elongate and widely separated procoxae, antennae with 9 antennomeres, and body covered with long erect setae. It is distinguished from the genus Stephanopachys Wate...
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#1Andrew J. Johnson (UF: University of Florida)H-Index: 3
#2Duane D. McKenna (U of M: University of Memphis)H-Index: 17
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Abstract Bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae) display a conspicuous diversity of unusual genetic and ecological attributes and behaviors. Reconstructing the evolution of Scolytinae, particularly the large and ecologically significant tribe Cryphalini (pygmy borers), has long been problematic. These challenges have not adequately been addressed using morphological characters, and previous research has used only DNA sequence data from small numbers of genes. Through a combination ...
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The paper records the rediscovery of the rare Urodontidius enigmaticus Louw, 1993 in South Africa, based on specimens reared from galls in the succulent leaves of Ruschia versicolor. The original account of some of the morphological characters of the species is corrected, and its habitus, antennae, pygidium and genitalia are illustrated. Its life history and galling habit on its host plant are described and illustrated, and its larva is compared with those of the genera Urodontellus Louw and Uro...
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#1Duane D. McKenna (U of M: University of Memphis)H-Index: 17
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The 2016 International Weevil Meeting was held immediately after the International Congress of Entomology (ICE). It built on the topics and content of the 2016 ICE weevil symposium Phylogeny and Evolution of Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea): A Symposium in Honor of Dr. Guillermo "Willy” Kuschel. Beyond catalyzing research and collaboration, the meeting was intended to serve as a forum for identifying priorities and goals for those who study weevils. The meeting consisted of 46 invited and co...
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#1Andrei A. Legalov (RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)H-Index: 13
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#1George Poinar (OSU: Oregon State University)H-Index: 26
AbstractBurmese amber is an extremely important source of mid-Cretaceous plant and animal remains with over 870 species of organisms, ranging from protozoa to vertebrates, described from this source. The amber mines are located on the West Burma Block that according to geologists was originally part of Gondwana. The present study introduces some angiosperms and insects in Burmese amber whose closest extant relatives have a Gondwanan distribution and there is no previous evidence of a Laurasian d...
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#1Lida Xing (China University of Geosciences)H-Index: 19
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The mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (~99 Ma, Myanmar), widely known for exquisite preservation of theropods, also yields microfossils, which can provide important contextual information on paleoenvironment and amber formation. We report the first Cretaceous ostracod in amber—the gigantic (12.9 mm) right valve of an exclusively marine group (Myodocopa: Myodocopida) preserved in Burmese amber. Ostracods are usually small (0.5–2 mm), with well-calcified carapaces that provide an excellent fossil recor...
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#1David Peris (University of Bonn)H-Index: 1
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