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The Weevil Fauna Preserved in Burmese Amber—Snapshot of a Unique, Extinct Lineage (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea)

Published on Dec 20, 2018in Diversity
· DOI :10.3390/d11010001
Dave J. Clarke3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Ajay Limaye1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsRolf G. Oberprieler11
Estimated H-index: 11
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Abstract
Only a few weevils have been described from Burmese amber, and although most have been misclassified, they show unusual and specialised characters unknown in extant weevils. In this paper, we present the results of a study of a much larger and more diverse selection of Burmese amber weevils. We prepared all amber blocks to maximise visibility of structures and examined these with high-magnification light microscopy as well as CT scanning (selected specimens). We redescribe most previously described taxa and describe 52 new species in 26 new genera, accompanied by photographs. We compare critical characters of these weevils with those of extant taxa and outline the effects of distortion on their preservation and interpretation. We conclude that only two weevil families are thus far represented in Burmese amber, Nemonychidae and a newly recognised family, Mesophyletidae, which appears closely related to Attelabidae but cannot be accommodated in this family. The geniculate antennae and long rostrum with exodont mandibles of most Mesophyletidae indicate that they were highly specialised phytophages of early angiosperms preserved in the amber, likely ovipositing in flowers or seeds. This weevil fauna appears to represent an extinct mid-Cretaceous ecosystem and fills a critical gap in the fossil record of weevils.
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  • References (63)
  • Citations (2)
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References63
Newest
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Scientific Reports4.01
Lida Xing18
Estimated H-index: 18
(China University of Geosciences),
Benjamin Sames9
Estimated H-index: 9
(University of Vienna)
+ 3 AuthorsWANXiaoqiao14
Estimated H-index: 14
(China University of Geosciences)
The mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (~99 Ma, Myanmar), widely known for exquisite preservation of theropods, also yields microfossils, which can provide important contextual information on paleoenvironment and amber formation. We report the first Cretaceous ostracod in amber—the gigantic (12.9 mm) right valve of an exclusively marine group (Myodocopa: Myodocopida) preserved in Burmese amber. Ostracods are usually small (0.5–2 mm), with well-calcified carapaces that provide an excellent fossil recor...
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Cretaceous Research2.12
Andrei A. Legalov12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Altai State University)
Abstract An auger beetle, Poinarinius burmaensis gen. et sp. nov. of the subfamily Dinoderinae (Bostrichidae) is described from Cretaceous Burmese amber. The new genus differs from other genera of this subfamily by the concave anterior margin of the pronotum, head visible from above and wider than the anterior margin of the pronotum, elongate and widely separated procoxae, antennae with 9 antennomeres, and body covered with long erect setae. It is distinguished from the genus Stephanopachys Wate...
Published on Oct 4, 2018in Historical Biology1.49
George O. Poinar6
Estimated H-index: 6
(OSU: Oregon State University),
Fernando E. Vega34
Estimated H-index: 34
(USDA: United States Department of Agriculture),
Andrei A. Legalov12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Altai State University)
ABSTRACTAn ambrosia beetle described as Palaeotylus femoralis n. gen et sp. belonging to a new subfamily (Palaeotylinae n. subfam.: Coleoptera: Platypodidae) is described from Cretaceous Burmese amber. It differs from other subfamilies by the loose antennal club, 6-articled funicle, coarsely faceted eyes, tibiae with teeth at apex, bilobed meso- and meta-tarsomeres 2 and 3 and tarsomere 1 shorter than tarsomeres 2–4 combined. This is the first described Platypodidae from Burmese amber and the ol...
Published on Oct 1, 2018in Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution3.99
Andrew J. Johnson2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UF: University of Florida),
Duane D. McKenna15
Estimated H-index: 15
(U of M: University of Memphis)
+ 5 AuthorsJiri Hulcr25
Estimated H-index: 25
(UF: University of Florida)
Abstract Bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae) display a conspicuous diversity of unusual genetic and ecological attributes and behaviors. Reconstructing the evolution of Scolytinae, particularly the large and ecologically significant tribe Cryphalini (pygmy borers), has long been problematic. These challenges have not adequately been addressed using morphological characters, and previous research has used only DNA sequence data from small numbers of genes. Through a combination ...
Published on Aug 14, 2018in Diversity
Rolf G. Oberprieler11
Estimated H-index: 11
,
Clarke H. Scholtz1
Estimated H-index: 1
The paper records the rediscovery of the rare Urodontidius enigmaticus Louw, 1993 in South Africa, based on specimens reared from galls in the succulent leaves of Ruschia versicolor. The original account of some of the morphological characters of the species is corrected, and its habitus, antennae, pygidium and genitalia are illustrated. Its life history and galling habit on its host plant are described and illustrated, and its larva is compared with those of the genera Urodontellus Louw and Uro...
Published on Jul 30, 2018in Historical Biology1.49
Andrei A. Legalov12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Altai State University)
ABSTRACTIn this article, two new tribes, Burmomaceratini n. trib. with type genus Burmomacer n. gen. and Burmocorynini n. trib. with type genus Burmocorynus n. gen., two new genera, Burmomacer n. gen. with type species Burmomacer kirejtshuki n. sp. and Burmocorynus n. gen. with type species Burmocorynus jarzembowskii n. sp. and two new species, Burmomacer kirejtshuki n. sp. and Burmocorynus jarzembowskii n. sp. of the families Nemonychidae and Belidae from Cretaceous Burmese amber are described ...
Published on Jul 18, 2018in Diversity
Duane D. McKenna15
Estimated H-index: 15
(U of M: University of Memphis),
Duane D. McKenna3
Estimated H-index: 3
(U of M: University of Memphis)
+ 22 AuthorsBruno Augusto Souza de Medeiros3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Harvard University)
The 2016 International Weevil Meeting was held immediately after the International Congress of Entomology (ICE). It built on the topics and content of the 2016 ICE weevil symposium Phylogeny and Evolution of Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea): A Symposium in Honor of Dr. Guillermo "Willy” Kuschel. Beyond catalyzing research and collaboration, the meeting was intended to serve as a forum for identifying priorities and goals for those who study weevils. The meeting consisted of 46 invited and co...
Published on Apr 1, 2018in Molecular Biology and Evolution14.80
Seunggwan Shin6
Estimated H-index: 6
(U of M: University of Memphis),
Dave J. Clarke3
Estimated H-index: 3
(U of M: University of Memphis)
+ 7 AuthorsDuane D. McKenna15
Estimated H-index: 15
(U of M: University of Memphis)
Published on Apr 1, 2018in Cretaceous Research2.12
Andrei A. Legalov12
Estimated H-index: 12
(RAS: Russian Academy of Sciences)
Abstract A new weevil, Burmorhinus georgei gen. et sp. nov. from the tribe Arthrostenini (Curculionidae: Erirhininae) is described from Cretaceous Burmese amber. The new genus is similar to the genus Thecorhinus Faust, 1887 but differs from the latter in having the body lacking wide scales, the tibiae being slightly widened at the apex, with large spurs, and weakly laminate tarsal claws. It is distinguished from the genus Arthrostenus Schoenherr, 1826 in the body lacking wide scales, the tibiae ...
Published on Mar 9, 2018in Historical Biology1.49
George Poinar26
Estimated H-index: 26
(OSU: Oregon State University)
AbstractBurmese amber is an extremely important source of mid-Cretaceous plant and animal remains with over 870 species of organisms, ranging from protozoa to vertebrates, described from this source. The amber mines are located on the West Burma Block that according to geologists was originally part of Gondwana. The present study introduces some angiosperms and insects in Burmese amber whose closest extant relatives have a Gondwanan distribution and there is no previous evidence of a Laurasian d...
Cited By2
Newest
Published on May 29, 2019in Biologia0.73
Jan Hinkelman (SAV: Slovak Academy of Sciences)
Morphological insect-insect mimicry is known from few Cretaceous cockroaches and a beetle. Formicamendax vrsanskyi gen. et sp. n. (Blattaria, Alienopteridae) shows myrmecomorph features such as an elongated, smooth and black body, simple fenestrated hindwing, legs lacking protective spines. Elbowed or “geniculate “antenna is a typical character of advanced ants and weevils used for different forms of communication. Together with reduced mouthparts and specialized palps still preserved grasping f...
Published on Jan 22, 2019in Diversity
Dave J. Clarke3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Rolf G. Oberprieler11
Estimated H-index: 11
In a recent paper we published on the weevil fauna preserved in Burmese amber, two newly proposed generic names were subsequently identified as preoccupied names (Elwoodius Clarke & Oberprieler and Platychirus Clarke & Oberprieler). We propose the name Zimmiorhinus as a replacement name for Elwoodius Clarke & Oberprieler and Burmophyletis as a replacement name for Platychirus Clarke & Oberprieler.