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Fat-Free Adipose Tissue Mass: Impact on Peak Oxygen Uptake ( V O 2peak ) in Adolescents with and without Obesity

Published on Jan 1, 2019in Sports Medicine7.58
· DOI :10.1007/s40279-018-1020-3
Takashi Abe21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of Mississippi),
Jeremy P. Loenneke33
Estimated H-index: 33
(University of Mississippi),
Robert S. Thiebaud23
Estimated H-index: 23
(Texas Wesleyan University)
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Abstract
Fat-free body mass (FFM) is a surrogate for skeletal muscle mass and is often used for the normalization of several physiological variables (e.g., oxygen uptake). However, FFM includes non-skeletal muscle components such as the fat-free component of adipose tissue fat cells. As the amount of adipose tissue mass increases, the FFM will also increase and be included in the measurement of FFM. Therefore, FFM may not be an appropriate indicator of muscle mass when targeting individuals with a large amount of body fat. This review aimed (1) to examine the fat-free adipose tissue (FFAT) in adolescents with and without obesity and (2) to investigate the impact of FFAT on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) by comparing VO2peak expressed relative to FFM and FFM minus FFAT between adolescents with and without obesity. Calculated FFAT was threefold higher in adolescents with obesity compared to those without obesity (mean ± SD; 6.94 ± 1.40 vs. 2.22 ± 0.58 kg). The VO2peak expressed relative to FFM-FFAT was similar between the two groups (56.5 ± 6.7 vs. 57.4 ± 8.9 ml min−1 kg−1 FFM-FFAT, respectively). On the other hand, VO2peak expressed relative to FFM was approximately 8% different between groups. When normalizing VO2peak by FFM, eliminating the FFAT component from FFM may be needed, especially when comparing groups with different body fat mass.
  • References (33)
  • Citations (2)
Cite
References33
Newest
Published on Oct 1, 2017in European Journal of Clinical Nutrition3.11
Taishi Midorikawa11
Estimated H-index: 11
,
Megumi Ohta7
Estimated H-index: 7
+ 2 AuthorsShizuo Sakamoto11
Estimated H-index: 11
Predicting skeletal muscle mass from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Japanese prepubertal children
Published on Sep 1, 2017in Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging3.73
Steve C. N. Hui7
Estimated H-index: 7
(CUHK: The Chinese University of Hong Kong),
Jacky Ko2
Estimated H-index: 2
(CUHK: The Chinese University of Hong Kong)
+ 5 AuthorsWinnie C.W. Chu38
Estimated H-index: 38
(CUHK: The Chinese University of Hong Kong)
Published on Oct 1, 2016in Sports Medicine7.58
Mark Loftin17
Estimated H-index: 17
(University of Mississippi),
Melinda Sothern27
Estimated H-index: 27
(LSU: Louisiana State University)
+ 1 AuthorsMarc Bonis2
Estimated H-index: 2
(LSU: Louisiana State University)
The aim of this review was to highlight research that has focused on examining expressions of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in children and youth, with special reference to allometric scaling. VO2peak is considered the highest VO2 during an increasing workload treadmill or bicycle ergometer test until volitional termination. We have reviewed scholarly works identified from PubMed, One Search, EBSCOhost and Google Scholar that examined VO2peak in absolute units (L·min−1), relative units [body mass...
Published on Mar 1, 2016in Journal of the American Heart Association4.66
Petter Bjornstad15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of Colorado Denver),
Uyen Truong11
Estimated H-index: 11
(University of Colorado Denver)
+ 7 AuthorsKristen J. Nadeau28
Estimated H-index: 28
(University of Colorado Denver)
Background Myocardial mechanics are altered in adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D); insulin resistance and adipokines have been implicated as important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but these relationships are poorly described in adolescents. We hypothesized that obese adolescents and adolescents with T2D would have abnormal cardiac function compared to lean adolescents. In addition, we hypothesized that insulin sensitivity (IS), adiposity, and adipokines would be associated...
Published on Mar 4, 2015in Annals of Human Biology1.59
João Valente-dos-Santos9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UC: University of Coimbra),
Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva17
Estimated H-index: 17
(UC: University of Coimbra)
+ 6 AuthorsRobert M. Malina69
Estimated H-index: 69
(Tarleton State University)
AbstractBackground: Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is routinely scaled as mL O2 per kilogram body mass despite theoretical and statistical limitations of using ratios.Aim: To examine the contribution of maturity status and body size descriptors to age-associated inter-individual variability in VO2peak and to present static allometric models to normalize VO2peak in male youth soccer players.Subjects and methods: Total body and estimates of total and regional lean mass were measured with dual energy...
Published on Nov 1, 2014in Obesity Reviews8.19
Dominique Hansen23
Estimated H-index: 23
(University of Hasselt),
Nastasia Marinus1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Hasselt)
+ 5 AuthorsTim Takken42
Estimated H-index: 42
(UU: Utrecht University)
Summary To prescribe feasible and medically safe exercise interventions for obese adolescents, it remains to be determined whether exercise tolerance is altered and whether anomalous cardiopulmonary responses during maximal exercise testing are present. Studies that examined cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in obese adolescents were searched: cardiopulmonary exercise tests with respiratory gas exchange measurements of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) were performed and compariso...
Published on Oct 1, 2012in Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology1.58
Monique Mendelson3
Estimated H-index: 3
(French Institute of Health and Medical Research),
Anne-Sophie Michallet1
Estimated H-index: 1
(French Institute of Health and Medical Research)
+ 4 AuthorsPatrice Flore16
Estimated H-index: 16
(French Institute of Health and Medical Research)
Abstract The aim of this study was to examine ventilatory responses to training in obese adolescents. We assessed body composition, pulmonary function and ventilatory responses (among which expiratory flow limitation and operational lung volumes) during progressive cycling exercise in 16 obese adolescents (OB) before and after 12 weeks of exercise training and in 16 normal-weight volunteers. As expected, obese adolescents’ resting expiratory reserve volume was lower and inversely correlated with...
Published on Feb 1, 2011in Pediatric Exercise Science1.71
Magnus Dencker19
Estimated H-index: 19
(Malmö University),
Bianca El-Naaman Hermansen5
Estimated H-index: 5
+ 2 AuthorsLars Bo Andersen62
Estimated H-index: 62
This study investigated the predictors of aerobic fitness (VO2PEAK) in young children on a population-base. Participants were 436 children (229 boys and 207 girls) aged 6.7 +/- 0.4 yrs. VO2PEAK was measured during a maximal treadmill exercise test. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometers. Total body fat and total fat free mass were estimated from skinfold measurements. Regression analyses indicated that significant predictors for VO2PEAK per kilogram body mass were total body fat, maxim...
Published on Sep 1, 2010in European Journal of Applied Physiology3.06
Hassane Zouhal19
Estimated H-index: 19
(University of Rennes),
Georges Jabbour6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Rennes)
+ 4 AuthorsC. Jacob13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Balamand)
The aim of this study was to investigate plasma catecholamine [adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA)] concentrations at rest and in response to maximal exercise in three different groups of adolescent girls. According to their body mass index, 34 adolescent girls aged 15–16 years were divided into three groups: a normal weight group (NO) (n = 11), an overweight group (OW) (n = 11) and an obese group (OB) (n = 12). Plasma A and NA concentrations were measured at rest during fasting conditions (A ...
Cited By2
Newest
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Obesity3.97
Takashi Abe21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of Mississippi),
Scott J. Dankel15
Estimated H-index: 15
(University of Mississippi),
Jeremy P. Loenneke33
Estimated H-index: 33
(University of Mississippi)
Published on Dec 1, 2018in Journal of Clinical Densitometry2.18
Takashi Abe21
Estimated H-index: 21
(University of Mississippi),
Zachary W. Bell3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Mississippi)
+ 3 AuthorsJeremy P. Loenneke33
Estimated H-index: 33
(University of Mississippi)
Abstract Fat-free mass as well as lean soft tissue mass is a surrogate for skeletal muscle mass and is often used for the normalization of several physiological variables or for the diagnosing of low muscle mass in older adults. However, both fat-free mass and lean tissue mass include nonskeletal muscle components such as the fat-free component of adipose tissue fat cells. A technique known as water-fat MRI provides a noninvasive and radiation-free assessment of the fat-free component of adipose...