Applying asymmetric, case-based, forecasting modeling in service research: Cultures’ consequences on customers’ service gratuities

Published on Nov 1, 2018in Australasian Marketing Journal (amj)
· DOI :10.1016/j.ausmj.2018.10.009
Graham Ferguson4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Curtin University),
Carol M. Megehee13
Estimated H-index: 13
(College of Business Administration),
Arch G. Woodside53
Estimated H-index: 53
(College of Business Administration)
Abstract This study provides a theory of the influences of alternative national cultures (as complex wholes) on customers’ tipping behaviors following receiving of services in restaurants and taxis. Based on complexity theory tenets, the study constructs and tests models asymmetrically—offers separate models for explaining and forecasting high tipping versus low tipping national cultures. The study uses multiple sources of secondary data for 30 nations including Hofstede's first four culture values, religiosity, Gini index, and GDP_PPP. Model construction includes computing-with-words (CWW) screens that prior theory forecasts to be accurate in identifying high (low) tipping behavior. Analysis includes using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and somewhat precise outcome testing (SPOT) of the consistency (degree of accuracy) and coverage for each model. Model testing includes predictive as well as fit validation. The findings support core tenets of complexity theory (e.g., equifinality of different recipes for the same outcome, both negative and positive associations of individual ingredients in different recipes contribute to the same outcome, and causal asymmetry). Because national cultures are complex wholes, hospitality researchers need to embrace the complexity theory tenets and asymmetric tools to achieve deep understanding and for accurately forecasting of customer responses to hospitality services. This study provides new theory and methodological tools for recognizing the complexities and forecasting customers’ behavior in their responses following receiving hospitality services.
  • References (39)
  • Citations (0)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
21 Citations
4 Citations
8 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
#1Graham Ferguson (Curtin University)H-Index: 4
#2Carol M. Megehee (College of Business Administration)H-Index: 13
Last. Arch G. Woodside (Curtin University)H-Index: 53
view all 3 authors...
Unique from prior research that deconstructs culture into separate attributes and reports on the symmetric “net effect” of each, the current study identifies holistic configurations of culture that account for the prevalence of tipping behaviors across tourism industries. Consistent with the theory that distinct holistic cultures predict tipping and non-tipping behaviors, the findings identify configurations of cultural attributes (e.g. “masculine benevolence”, “feminine benevolence”, and “achie...
12 CitationsSource
#1Esteban Brenes (INCAE Business School)H-Index: 12
#2Luciano Ciravegna (INCAE Business School)H-Index: 13
Last. Arch G. Woodside (International University of Monaco)H-Index: 53
view all 3 authors...
Abstract This study advances the proposition that applying core tenets of complexity theory is useful for solving the “crucial problem” in strategic management—describing, explaining, and predicting firm heterogeneity. The study describes the core tenets (e.g., the necessity of constructing models for cases with relationship reversals to a significant main effect—cases occur whereby both high and low scores of an antecedent condition indicate high scores in an outcome condition; asymmetric model...
16 CitationsSource
#1Arch G. WoodsideH-Index: 53
15 CitationsSource
#1Vilmos F. MisangyiH-Index: 15
#2Thomas Greckhamer (LSU: Louisiana State University)H-Index: 12
Last. Ruth V. Aguilera (Ramon Llull University)H-Index: 35
view all 6 authors...
Causal complexity has long been recognized as a ubiquitous feature underlying organizational phenomena, yet current theories and methodologies in management are for the most part not well-suited to its direct study. The introduction of the Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) configurational approach has led to a reinvigoration of configurational theory that embraces causal complexity explicitly. We argue that the burgeoning research using QCA represents more than a novel methodology; it const...
88 CitationsSource
#1Devendra Potnis (UT: University of Tennessee)H-Index: 6
This study broadens our understanding of the gender digital divide in India.Cultural factors create economic barriers for Indian women to own a mobile phone.Financially independent women cannot own some of the most inexpensive mobile phones. Economic barriers play the most significant role in precluding women from owning ICTs in developing nations. This qualitative study explores the factors responsible for creating economic barriers for 245 women in India, which prevent them from owning a mobil...
1,073 CitationsSource
Purpose This paper aims to advance a configural asymmetric theory of the complex antecedents to hospitality employee happiness-at-work and managers’ assessments of employees’ quality of work performance. The study transcends variable and case-level analyses to go beyond prior statistical findings of small-to-medium effect sizes of happiness–performance relationships; the study here identifies antecedent paths involving high-versus-low happy employees associating with high-versus-low managers’ as...
44 CitationsSource
This essay describes tenets of complexity theory including the precept that within the same set of data X relates to Y positively, negatively, and not at all. A consequence to this first precept is that reporting how X relates positively to Y with and without additional terms in multiple regression models ignores important information available in a data set. Performing contrarian case analysis indicates that cases having low X with high Y and high X with low Y occur even when the relationship b...
212 CitationsSource
#1Stephen A. Samaha (CSUN: California State University, Northridge)H-Index: 5
#2Joshua T. Beck (UC: University of Cincinnati)H-Index: 4
Last. Robert W. Palmatier (UW: University of Washington)H-Index: 32
view all 3 authors...
International relationships are increasingly critical to business performance. Yet despite a recent surge in international research on relationship marketing (RM), it is unclear whether or how RM should be adapted across cultures. The authors adopt Hofstede's dimensions of culture to conduct a comprehensive, multivariate, metaregression analysis of 47,864 relationships across 170 studies, 36 countries, and six continents. To guide theory, they propose four tenets that parsimoniously capture the ...
105 CitationsSource
#1Pei-Ling Wu (CTU: Chienkuo Technology University)H-Index: 1
#2Shih-Shuo Yeh (National Quemoy University)H-Index: 4
Last. Arch G. Woodside (BC: Boston College)H-Index: 53
view all 4 authors...
Recognizing Gigerenzer's (1991) dictum that scientists' tools are not neutral (tools-in-use influence theory formulation as well as data interpretation), this article reports theory and examines data in ways that transcend the dominant logics for variable-based and case-based analyses. The theory and data analysis tests key propositions in complexity theory: (1) no single antecedent condition is a sufficient or necessary indicator of a high score in an outcome condition; (2) a few of many availa...
170 CitationsSource
#1Andrea Ordanini (Bocconi University)H-Index: 20
#2Ananthanarayanan Parasuraman (UM: University of Miami)H-Index: 64
Last. Gaia Rubera (Bocconi University)H-Index: 17
view all 3 authors...
Service innovation is a primary source of competitive advantage and a research priority. However, empirical evidence about the impact of innovativeness on new service adoption is inconclusive. A plausible explanation is that service innovation has thus far been studied using new product frameworks that do not fully capture the complexity of new service assessments by customers. We propose a different, holistic framework, which posits that new service adoption does not depend on individual servic...
232 CitationsSource
Cited By0