Adolescent Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms During Emerging Adulthood: The Role of Online and Offline Social Support
There is a dearth of research examining the relation between adolescent peer victimization and internalizing symptoms during emerging adulthood. This retrospective study examined relations among offline and online peer victimization, internalizing symptoms, as well as offline and online social support. A sample of 416 participants aged 18–24 was recruited and self-report data on adolescent victimization, support, and internalizing symptoms were collected. The results showed that retrospective reports of peer victimization and social support predicted current internalizing symptomology. However, this varied as a function of online/offline context and symptomology. Specifically peer victimization was more predictive of depressive symptoms than social anxiety symptoms. Offline social support predicted fewer internalizing symptoms, but online support did not. Social support diminished the association between peer victimization and social anxiety.