Twenty-metre shuttle run: (mis)representation, (mis)interpretation and (mis)use

Published on Oct 1, 2019in British Journal of Sports Medicine11.645
· DOI :10.1136/bjsports-2018-100082
Neil Armstrong45
Estimated H-index: 45
(University of Exeter),
Jo Welsman7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of Exeter)
Recent publications in the British Journal of Sports Medicine ( BJSM) (mis)represent and (mis)interpret young people’s cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and potentially (mis)inform health promotion and clinical practice. 1 2 The papers recognise peak VO2as the criterion measure of CRF but base their estimations of peak VO2 on performances in 20 m shuttle runs (20mSRT). Moreover, and of serious concern to us, estimated peak VO2 is (mis)represented and (mis)interpreted in ratio with body mass (ie, in mL/kg/min). The papers identify a few of the limitations of shuttle running but a recent meta-analysis succinctly summarised the issues. It demonstrated that with children, over half of correlation coefficients between 20mSRT scores and peak VO2 explain less than 50% of the variance in peak VO2. The meta-analysis reported that the criterion-related validity of the 20mSRT with children was only ‘ moderate ’ and concluded, ‘testers must be aware that the performance score of the 20MSR test is simply estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness’.3 An example of specious interpretation of 20mSRT scores is the assertion that …
  • References (7)
  • Citations (6)
#1Justin J. Lang (Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario)H-Index: 11
#2S TremblayMark (Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario)H-Index: 71
Last. Grant R. TomkinsonH-Index: 24
view all 5 authors...
Purpose To identify criterion-referenced standards for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF); to estimate the percentage of children and youth that met each standard; and to discuss strategies to help improve the utility of criterion-referenced standards for population health research. Methods A search of four databases was undertaken to identify papers that reported criterion-referenced CRF standards for children and youth generated using the receiver operating characteristic curve technique. A pseud...
12 CitationsSource
#1Jo Welsman (University of Exeter)H-Index: 7
#2Neil Armstrong (University of Exeter)H-Index: 45
In this paper, we draw on cross-sectional, treadmill-determined, peak oxygen uptake data, collected in our laboratory over a 20-year period, to examine whether traditional per body mass (ratio) sca...
11 CitationsSource
#1Grant R. TomkinsonH-Index: 24
#2Justin J. Lang (Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario)H-Index: 11
Last. S TremblayMark (Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario)H-Index: 71
view all 3 authors...
Objective To estimate international and national temporal trends in the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of children and adolescents and to examine relationships between temporal trends in CRF and temporal trends in broad socioeconomic and health-related indicators across countries. Methods Data were obtained from a systematic search of studies that explicitly reported 20 m shuttle run test (a validated measure of CRF) descriptive data on apparently healthy individuals aged 9–17 years. Following ...
19 CitationsSource
#1Mark Loftin (University of Mississippi)H-Index: 18
#2Melinda S. Sothern (LSU: Louisiana State University)H-Index: 28
Last. Marc Bonis (LSU: Louisiana State University)H-Index: 5
view all 4 authors...
The aim of this review was to highlight research that has focused on examining expressions of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in children and youth, with special reference to allometric scaling. VO2peak is considered the highest VO2 during an increasing workload treadmill or bicycle ergometer test until volitional termination. We have reviewed scholarly works identified from PubMed, One Search, EBSCOhost and Google Scholar that examined VO2peak in absolute units (L·min−1), relative units [body mass...
22 CitationsSource
The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. Relevant studies were searched from twelve electronic databases up to December 2014, as well as from several alternative modes of searching. The Hunter-Schmidt’s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test. From 57 studies that were included in the...
48 Citations
#1Neil Armstrong (University of Exeter)H-Index: 45
#2Grant R. Tomkinson (UniSA: University of South Australia)H-Index: 24
Last. Ulf Ekelund (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 86
view all 3 authors...
Aim To analyse aerobic fitness and its relationship with sport participation, exercise training and habitual physical activity (HPA) during youth. Methods Studies were located through computer searches of Medline, SPORT Discus and personal databases. Systematic reviews of time trends in aerobic fitness/performance, and exercise training and peak oxygen uptake (peak VO 2 ) are reported. Results Peak VO 2 increases with age and maturation. Boys9 peak VO 2 is higher than girls9. Despite data showin...
102 CitationsSource
395 CitationsSource
Cited By6
#1Grant R. TomkinsonH-Index: 24
#2Justin J. Lang (Public Health Agency of Canada)H-Index: 11
Last. S TremblayMarkH-Index: 71
view all 7 authors...
In their editorial, Armstrong and Welsman1 suggest that the 20 m shuttle run test (20mSRT) (mis)represents and (mis)interprets youth cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and potentially (mis)informs health promotion and clinical practice. Their main arguments are: (a) the 20mSRT only provides an estimate of CRF (ie, peak ![Formula][1] O2) and (b) estimates are ratio-scaled (ie, expressed relative to body mass). In this response we provide several reasons, rooted in evidence, which refute their inter...
#1Neil Armstrong (University of Exeter)H-Index: 45
#2Jo Welsman (University of Exeter)H-Index: 7
#1Neil Armstrong (University of Exeter)H-Index: 45
#2Jo Welsman (University of Exeter)H-Index: 7
.Peak oxygen uptake (V O_2) is internationally recognized as the criterion measure of youth aerobic fitness, but flawed laboratory assessments and fallacious interpretations of peak V O_2 in ratio with body mass have confused our understanding of the development of aerobic fitness. Moreover, the recent emergence of specious predictions of peak V O_2 from performance tests and the promotion of spurious ‘clinical red flags’ and cardiometabolic cut-points have confused our understanding of the rela...
#1Alon Eliakim (Meir Medical Center)H-Index: 32
#2Bareket Falk (Brock University)H-Index: 30
Last. Alex V. Rowlands (University of Leicester)H-Index: 22
view all 16 authors...
This commentary highlights 23 noteworthy publications from 2018, selected by leading scientists in pediatric exercise science. These publications have been deemed as significant or exciting in the ...
1 CitationsSource
#1Neil Armstrong (University of Exeter)H-Index: 45
#2Jo Welsman (University of Exeter)H-Index: 7
Purposes To investigate the development of peak oxygen uptake (\(\dot{{V}}{\text{O}}_{2}\)) assessed on both a treadmill and a cycle ergometer in relation with sex and concurrent changes in age, body mass, fat-free mass (FFM), and maturity status and to evaluate currently proposed ‘clinical red flags’ or health-related cut-points for peak \(\dot{{V}}{\text{O}}_{2}\).
7 CitationsSource
#1Charles O. N. Winn (Swansea University)H-Index: 2
#2Kelly A. Mackintosh (Swansea University)H-Index: 9
Last. Gwyneth Davies (Swansea University)H-Index: 11
view all 7 authors...
Abstract Background Higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced asthma severity and increased quality of life in those with asthma. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-month high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention in adolescents with and without asthma. Methods A total of 616 adolescents (334 boys; 13.0 ± 1.1 years, 1.57 ± 0.10 m, 52.6 ± 12.9 kg, mean ± SD), including 155 with asthma (78 boys), were recruited as pa...
1 CitationsSource