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Impacts of species richness on productivity in a large-scale subtropical forest experiment

Published on Oct 5, 2018in Science41.04
· DOI :10.1126/science.aat6405
Yuanyuan Huang6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UZH: University of Zurich),
Yuxin Chen2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UZH: University of Zurich)
+ 61 AuthorsBernhard Schmid82
Estimated H-index: 82
(UZH: University of Zurich)
Cite
Abstract
Biodiversity experiments have shown that species loss reduces ecosystem functioning in grassland. To test whether this result can be extrapolated to forests, the main contributors to terrestrial primary productivity, requires large-scale experiments. We manipulated tree species richness by planting more than 150,000 trees in plots with 1 to 16 species. Simulating multiple extinction scenarios, we found that richness strongly increased stand-level productivity. After 8 years, 16-species mixtures had accumulated over twice the amount of carbon found in average monocultures and similar amounts as those of two commercial monocultures. Species richness effects were strongly associated with functional and phylogenetic diversity. A shrub addition treatment reduced tree productivity, but this reduction was smaller at high shrub species richness. Our results encourage multispecies afforestation strategies to restore biodiversity and mitigate climate change.
  • References (47)
  • Citations (17)
Cite
References47
Newest
Published on Jul 1, 2018in Journal of Ecology5.69
Yi Jin1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Ministry of Education),
Sabrina E. Russo21
Estimated H-index: 21
(NU: University of Nebraska–Lincoln),
Mingjian Yu12
Estimated H-index: 12
(Ministry of Education)
Published on May 1, 2018in Journal of Ecology5.69
Thomas Van de Peer4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UGent: Ghent University),
Kris Verheyen49
Estimated H-index: 49
(UGent: Ghent University)
+ 2 AuthorsBart Muys55
Estimated H-index: 55
(Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)
1.Overyielding in mixed-species forests has been demonstrated in a vast body of literature, and the focus of functional biodiversity research is now shifting towards a mechanistic understanding of these observations. 2.We explored diversity-productivity relationships (DPRs) at two sites of a large-scale tree diversity experiment, with harsh (Ged) and benign (Zed) environmental conditions for plantation establishment. Additive partitioning methodologies were adopted to detect phenomenological pat...
Published on Jan 1, 2018in Journal of Ecology5.69
Akira Mori38
Estimated H-index: 38
(Yokohama National University)
Knowledge of the functional consequences of biodiversity is increasing through studies of both experimental systems and natural systems. Community assembly theory has also helped to reveal the causes of biodiversity organization. However, the causes and consequences of biodiversity have been discussed in parallel and simultaneous consideration of both has been limited, even though they are both influenced by regional environmental conditions. To understand the relationship between biodiversity a...
Published on Oct 1, 2017in Ecology4.29
Jake J. Grossman4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UMN: University of Minnesota),
Jeannine Cavender-Bares43
Estimated H-index: 43
(UMN: University of Minnesota)
+ 2 AuthorsRebecca A. Montgomery27
Estimated H-index: 27
(UMN: University of Minnesota)
Over the last two decades, empirical work has established that higher biodiversity can lead to greater primary productivity; however, the importance of different aspects of biodiversity in contributing to such relationships is rarely elucidated. We assessed the relative importance of species richness, phylogenetic diversity, functional diversity, and identity of neighbors for stem growth 3 yr after seedling establishment in a tree diversity experiment in eastern Minnesota. Generally, we found th...
Published on Jun 1, 2017in Nature43.07
Forest Isbell28
Estimated H-index: 28
,
Andrew Gonzalez41
Estimated H-index: 41
(McGill University)
+ 10 AuthorsJ. Emmett Duffy54
Estimated H-index: 54
(Smithsonian Institution)
Biodiversity enhances many of nature's benefits to people, including the regulation of climate and the production of wood in forests, livestock forage in grasslands and fish in aquatic ecosystems. Yet people are now driving the sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history. Human dependence and influence on biodiversity have mainly been studied separately and at contrasting scales of space and time, but new multiscale knowledge is beginning to link these relationships. Biodiversity loss substan...
Published on May 1, 2017in Trends in Ecology and Evolution15.24
David A. Clarke1
Estimated H-index: 1
(JCU: James Cook University),
Paul H. York15
Estimated H-index: 15
(JCU: James Cook University)
+ 1 AuthorsTobin D. Northfield11
Estimated H-index: 11
(JCU: James Cook University)
Current evidence suggests that there is a positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but few studies have addressed tropical ecosystems where the highest levels of biodiversity occur. We develop two hypotheses for the implications of generalizing from temperate studies to tropical ecosystems, and discuss the need for more tropical research.
Published on Mar 1, 2017in Nature Ecology and Evolution
Laura Williams5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UMN: University of Minnesota),
Alain Paquette24
Estimated H-index: 24
(UQAM: Université du Québec à Montréal)
+ 2 AuthorsPeter B. Reich129
Estimated H-index: 129
A field study of young trees shows that complementarity among tree crowns in canopy space is a mechanism linking biodiversity with ecosystem productivity, and as such may contribute to diversity-enhanced productivity in forests.
Published on Apr 1, 2017in Ecology4.29
Pascal A. Niklaus40
Estimated H-index: 40
(UZH: University of Zurich),
Martin Baruffol10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UZH: University of Zurich)
+ 2 AuthorsBernhard Schmid82
Estimated H-index: 82
(UZH: University of Zurich)
Most experimental biodiversity–ecosystem functioning research to date has addressed herbaceous plant communities. Comparably little is known about how forest communities will respond to species losses, despite their importance for global biogeochemical cycling. We studied tree species interactions in experimental subtropical tree communities with 33 distinct tree species mixtures and one, two, or four species. Plots were either exposed to natural light levels or shaded. Trees grew rapidly and we...
Published on Apr 1, 2017in Ecology Letters8.70
Sarah Greenwood6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Stirling),
Paloma Ruiz-Benito14
Estimated H-index: 14
(University of Stirling)
+ 9 AuthorsGerhard Bönisch24
Estimated H-index: 24
(MPG: Max Planck Society)
Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought,...
Published on Feb 1, 2017in Journal of Plant Ecology-uk2.28
Bernhard Schmid82
Estimated H-index: 82
(UZH: University of Zurich),
Martin Baruffol10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UZH: University of Zurich)
+ 1 AuthorsPascal A. Niklaus40
Estimated H-index: 40
(UZH: University of Zurich)
Aims: The aim of this guide is to provide practical help for ecologists who analyze data from biodiversity–ecosystem functioning experiments. Our approach differs from others in the use of least squares-based linear models (LMs) together with restricted maximum likelihood-based mixed models (MMs) for the analysis of hierarchical data. An original data set containing diameter and height of young trees grown in monocultures, 2- or 4-species mixtures under ambient light or shade is used as an examp...
Cited By17
Newest
Published on Dec 1, 2019in Aeolian Research2.86
Rui Ma (GAU: Gansu Agricultural University), Junran Li12
Estimated H-index: 12
(TU: University of Tulsa)
+ 3 AuthorsLinyuan Wei
Abstract Windbreaks have been widely used in northern China and many other arid and semiarid areas in the world to reduce wind speed, wind erosion and counter sand dune encroachment. Although there has been a considerable number of studies examining the changes of airflow and the shelter efficiencies for windbreaks composed of different plant types, more in-depth studies are still needed to investigate the case of mixed windbreaks. Here, we used model plants to establish two representative plant...
Published on Nov 1, 2019in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment3.95
Delphine Clara Zemp8
Estimated H-index: 8
(GAU: University of Göttingen),
Martin Ehbrecht5
Estimated H-index: 5
(GAU: University of Göttingen)
+ 7 AuthorsHolger Kreft36
Estimated H-index: 36
(GAU: University of Göttingen)
Abstract Conversion of structurally complex rainforests into simplified oil palm monocultures leads to dramatic losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. To alleviate negative ecological impacts, enrichment with native tree species may rapidly restore structural complexity in existing oil palm plantations. However, the mechanisms underlying the recovery of structural complexity in mixed-species tree plantings remain poorly understood. We measured structural complexity from terrestrial la...
Published on 2019in Ecology and Evolution2.42
Felix Gottschall2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Leipzig University),
Sophie Davids (Leipzig University)+ 3 AuthorsNico Eisenhauer42
Estimated H-index: 42
(Leipzig University)
Published on Sep 11, 2019in Journal of Ecology5.69
Ming‐Qiang Wang (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences), Yi Li (CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)+ 15 AuthorsMAKeping41
Estimated H-index: 41
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Published on May 29, 2019in Journal of Plant Ecology-uk2.28
Yin Li1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences),
Helge Bruelheide38
Estimated H-index: 38
(MLU: Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg)
+ 6 AuthorsMAKeping41
Estimated H-index: 41
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Published on Sep 5, 2019in Global Change Biology8.88
Florian Schnabel1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Freiburg),
Julia A. Schwarz (University of Freiburg)+ 4 AuthorsCatherine Potvin35
Estimated H-index: 35
(McGill University)
Published on 2019in Methods in Ecology and Evolution7.10
Adam Thomas Clark4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ),
Kathryn E. Barry4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Leipzig University)
+ 3 AuthorsWilliam Stanley Harpole39
Estimated H-index: 39
(MLU: Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg)
Published on Jul 2, 2019in Ecology Letters8.70
Ya‐Huang Luo3
Estimated H-index: 3
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences),
Marc W. Cadotte41
Estimated H-index: 41
(U of T: University of Toronto)
+ 6 AuthorsLian-Ming Gao19
Estimated H-index: 19
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Published on May 9, 2019in Journal of Ecology5.69
Shuai Ouyang4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Central South University Forestry and Technology),
Wenhua Xiang16
Estimated H-index: 16
(Central South University Forestry and Technology)
+ 11 AuthorsLixiong Zeng
View next paperDensity and assemblage influence the nature of the species richness–productivity relationship in Australian dry sclerophyll forest species