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Co-circulation of genetically diverse population of vaccine related and unrelated respiratory mycoplasmas and viruses in UK poultry flocks with health or production problems

Published on Nov 1, 2018in Veterinary Microbiology2.791
· DOI :10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.09.009
Christopher Ball3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Liverpool),
Anne Forrester6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Liverpool),
Kannan Ganapathy13
Estimated H-index: 13
(University of Liverpool)
Abstract
Abstract Respiratory diseases continue to have a major impact on poultry health, welfare and productivity. However, little information is available on their current status in UK poultry flocks. We investigated the presence of four economically important respiratory pathogens in healthy or problematic flocks; infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) and Mycoplasma synoviae (Ms). Samples from 131 UK poultry flocks were received during the 12 month study period. Oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were taken from eight birds per flock and accompanied with flock health information. The study included 118 chicken, 6 pheasant and 5 turkey flocks, and 1 quail and 1 partridge flock. Chicken flocks were of layers (n = 98), broilers (n = 15), breeders (n = 3) and undisclosed (n = 2). Flock ages ranged from 3 to 72 weeks old, and the average flock size was 17,633 birds. PCR detected 65 (49.6%), 59 (45%) and 8 (6.1%) flocks as positive for IBV, Mg/Ms and aMPV respectively. Analysis of the mgc2 gene of the Mg isolates revealed high similarities to Mg TS-11 and Mg 6/85. Further gene analysis found that the TS-11-like isolates were unrelated to the TS-11 vaccine. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis identified the majority of positive Ms as ST21, along with ST2 (MS-H-like), ST6 and ST43. IBV S1 gene sequencing identified strains as 793B (66.7%), Arkansas (23.8%) and Massachusetts (9.5%). All aMPV positive samples belonged to subtype B. Findings indicate that over half of the flocks sampled were positive for at least one of the four vaccine or field strains of mycoplasmas or viruses.
  • References (31)
  • Citations (1)
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References31
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#1Camir Ricketts (UGA: University of Georgia)H-Index: 1
#2Larissa Pickler (UFPR: Federal University of Paraná)H-Index: 5
Last. Naola Ferguson-Noel (UGA: University of Georgia)H-Index: 9
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ABSTRACT Despite attempts to control avian mycoplasmosis through management, vaccination, and surveillance, Mycoplasma gallisepticum continues to cause significant morbidity, mortality, and economic losses in poultry production. Live attenuated vaccines are commonly used in the poultry industry to control avian mycoplasmosis; unfortunately, some vaccines may revert to virulence and vaccine strains are generally difficult to distinguish from natural field isolates. In order to identify genome dif...
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#1Christopher Ball (University of Liverpool)H-Index: 3
#2Sarah Bennett (University of Liverpool)H-Index: 1
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Despite regular co-vaccination of two different strains of live infectious bronchitis vaccine viruses, little is known about possible mutations in these viruses following vaccination. As an alternative to chicks, this study used an in vitro infection model to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the part-S1 gene of two live infectious bronchitis virus vaccine strains (793B and Massachusetts) following single or dual inoculation onto tracheal organ cultures. Results indicate tha...
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SUMMARY Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is a poultry pathogen that has had an increasing incidence and economic impact over the past few years. Strain identification is necessary for outbreak investigation, infection source identification, and facilitating prevention and control as well as eradication efforts. Currently, a segment of the variable lipoprotein hemagglutinin A (vlhA) gene (420 bp) is the only target that is used for MS strain identification. A major limitation of this assay is that colona...
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#1Christopher Ball (University of Liverpool)H-Index: 3
#2Anne Forrester (University of Liverpool)H-Index: 6
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Poultry production is an important sector of agriculture in Sri Lanka; however, there is a lack of information regarding circulation of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). RNA was extracted from chicken tissues, subjected to IBV S1 RT-PCR, and sequenced. Overall, 19 out of 34 (55.88 %) samples were IBV positive and contained the genotype 793B (n = 13; 68.42 %), D274 (n = 4; 21.05 %) or Massachusetts (n = 2; 10.53 %). All three genotypes contained at least one strain with less than 99 % nucleotide...
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Abstract We are reporting on the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) genotypes circulating within seven Middle East countries and the alterations in genotype distributions between 2009 and 2014. Tissue samples on FTA cards were received over the six-year period. Viral RNA was extracted using phenol chloroform and subjected to nested RT-PCR targeting a 393 bp region of the S1 gene before being followed by sequencing. From the 461 submitted samples, 363 were IBV positive by RT-PCR (77.01%). Of these...
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Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae are the most relevant mycoplasma species for commercial poultry from the clinical and economic point of view. Although the importance of M. gallisepticum was recognized many decades ago, the relevance of M. synoviae has been a matter of debate. Until the turn of the century, only the respiratory and synovitis forms of the disease were reported, while the majority of infections were subclinical. Since the year 2000 M. synoviae strains with oviduct tropism,...
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Live vaccines predominantly control avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in poultry flocks, but vaccine virus can be found for extended periods after application. The most frequently used aMPV vaccine in Italy, VCO3 subtype B, was shown to contain a unique Tru9I restriction endonuclease site within the amplicons produced by a commonly used aMPV diagnostic reverse transcriptase (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analysis of European and database logged subtype B aMPV sequences confirm...
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