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Which biological and self-report measures of cannabis use predict cannabis dependency and acute psychotic-like effects?

Published on Sep 4, 2018in Psychological Medicine 5.64
· DOI :10.1017/s003329171800226x
H. Valerie Curran3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UCL: University College London),
Chandni Hindocha10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UCL: University College London)
+ 3 AuthorsTom P. Freeman20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UCL: University College London)
Cite
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Changes in cannabis regulation globally make it increasingly important to determine what predicts an individual's risk of experiencing adverse drug effects. Relevant studies have used diverse self-report measures of cannabis use, and few include multiple biological measures. Here we aimed to determine which biological and self-report measures of cannabis use predict cannabis dependency and acute psychotic-like symptoms. METHOD: In a naturalistic study, 410 young cannabis users were assessed once when intoxicated with their own cannabis and once when drug-free in counterbalanced order. Biological measures of cannabinoids [(Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN) and their metabolites)] were derived from three samples: each participant's own cannabis (THC, CBD), a sample of their hair (THC, THC-OH, THC-COOH, CBN, CBD) and their urine (THC-COOH/creatinine). Comprehensive self-report measures were also obtained. Self-reported and clinician-rated assessments were taken for cannabis dependency [Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), DSM-IV-TR] and acute psychotic-like symptoms [Psychotomimetic State Inventory (PSI) and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)]. RESULTS: Cannabis dependency was positively associated with days per month of cannabis use on both measures, and with urinary THC-COOH/creatinine for the SDS. Acute psychotic-like symptoms were positively associated with age of first cannabis use and negatively with urinary THC-COOH/creatinine; no predictors emerged for BPRS. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of THC exposure are positively associated with both cannabis dependency and tolerance to the acute psychotic-like effects of cannabis. Combining urinary and self-report assessments (use frequency; age first used) enhances the measurement of cannabis use and its association with adverse outcomes.
  • References (37)
  • Citations (4)
Cite
References37
Newest
Published on Apr 1, 2018in Drug Testing and Analysis 2.80
David Potter4
Estimated H-index: 4
(GW Pharmaceuticals),
Kathy Hammond1
Estimated H-index: 1
(GW Pharmaceuticals)
+ 2 AuthorsM. Di Forti34
Estimated H-index: 34
('KCL': King's College London)
In 2005 and 2008, studies reported that cannabis in England had become dominated by the sinsemilla (unseeded female) form. The average potency (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] content) of this material had doubled over the previous decade. Cannabis resin then circulating contained approximately equal ratios of THC and cannabidiol (CBD), whereas sinsemilla was almost devoid of CBD. Despite raised health concerns regarding sinsemilla use and the development of psychotic disorders, no update on stree...
Published on Feb 1, 2018in Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 4.92
Krista M. Lisdahl10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UWM: University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee),
Kenneth J. Sher71
Estimated H-index: 71
(MU: University of Missouri)
+ 7 AuthorsMary M. Heitzeg24
Estimated H-index: 24
(UM: University of Michigan)
Abstract One of the objectives of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study ( https://abcdstudy.org/ ) is to establish a national longitudinal cohort of 9 and 10 year olds that will be followed for 10 years in order to prospectively study the risk and protective factors influencing substance use and its consequences, examine the impact of substance use on neurocognitive, health and psychosocial outcomes, and to understand the relationship between substance use and psychopathology. ...
Published on Aug 1, 2017in The Lancet Psychiatry 18.33
Amir Englund6
Estimated H-index: 6
('KCL': King's College London),
Tom P. Freeman20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UCL: University College London)
+ 1 AuthorsPhilip McGuire105
Estimated H-index: 105
('KCL': King's College London)
Summary Cannabis use and related problems are on the rise globally alongside an increase in the potency of cannabis sold on both black and legal markets. Additionally, there has been a shift towards abandoning prohibition for a less punitive and more permissive legal stance on cannabis, such as decriminalisation and legalisation. It is therefore crucial that we explore new and innovative ways to reduce harm. Research has found cannabis with high concentrations of its main active ingredient, δ-9-...
Published on Aug 1, 2017
Chandni Hindocha10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UCL: University College London),
Tom P. Freeman20
Estimated H-index: 20
,
H. Valerie Curran41
Estimated H-index: 41
(UCL: University College London)
Abstract Introduction: Major gaps exist in the measurement of cannabis exposure. The accuracy of self-reported cannabis and tobacco dose per joint is poorly characterized and has never been investigated following acute cannabis/tobacco exposure. Using an innovative “Roll a Joint” paradigm, this study aims to (1) compare estimated and actual dose of cannabis and tobacco per joint at baseline and (2) examine the acute effects of cannabis and/or tobacco on estimated and actual dose. Materials and M...
Published on Jul 1, 2017in Drug and Alcohol Dependence 3.47
Cristina Casajuana Kögel1
Estimated H-index: 1
,
María Mercedes Balcells Oliveró3
Estimated H-index: 3
+ 6 AuthorsAntoni Gual Solé30
Estimated H-index: 30
Abstract Objective Reliable data on cannabis quantities is required to improve assessment of cannabis consumption for epidemiological analysis and clinical assessment, consequently a Standard Joint Unit (SJU) based on quantity of 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC) has been established. Methodology Naturalistic study of a convenience sample recruited from February 2015–June 2016 in universities, leisure spaces, mental health services and cannabis clubs in Barcelona. Adults, reporting cannabis use in ...
Published on Mar 1, 2017in Drug and Alcohol Review 2.79
Michelle Taylor12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UoB: University of Bristol),
Rosie J Lees1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UoB: University of Bristol)
+ 4 AuthorsMatthew Hickman59
Estimated H-index: 59
(UoB: University of Bristol)
Introduction Biological tests of drug use can be used to inform clinical and legal decisions and hold potential to provide evidence for epidemiological studies where self-reported behaviour may be unavailable or unreliable. We test whether hair can be considered as a reliable marker of cannabis exposure. Methods Hair samples were collected from 136 subjects who were self-reported heavy, light or non-users of cannabis and tested using GC-MS/MS. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value ...
Published on Nov 1, 2016in Translational Psychiatry 5.18
Claire Mokrysz9
Estimated H-index: 9
(UCL: University College London),
Tom P. Freeman20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UCL: University College London)
+ 2 AuthorsHv Curran22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UCL: University College London)
Are adolescents more vulnerable to the harmful effects of cannabis than adults? A placebo-controlled study in human males
Published on Sep 1, 2016in Schizophrenia Bulletin 7.29
Arianna Marconi4
Estimated H-index: 4
('KCL': King's College London),
M. Di Forti34
Estimated H-index: 34
('KCL': King's College London)
+ 2 AuthorsEvangelos Vassos26
Estimated H-index: 26
('KCL': King's College London)
Cannabis use has been reported to induce long-lasting psychotic disorders and a dose-response relationship has been observed. We performed a systematic review of studies that investigate the association between the degree of cannabis consumption and psychosis and a meta-analysis to quantify the magnitude of effect. Published studies were identified through search of electronic databases, supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies. Studies were considered if they provided data on cannabis ...
Published on May 1, 2016in Nature Reviews Neuroscience 33.16
H. Valerie Curran41
Estimated H-index: 41
(UCL: University College London),
Tom P. Freeman20
Estimated H-index: 20
+ 3 AuthorsLoren H. Parsons56
Estimated H-index: 56
(Scripps Research Institute)
In an increasing number of states and countries, cannabis now stands poised to join alcohol and tobacco as a legal drug. Quantifying the relative adverse and beneficial effects of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids should therefore be prioritized. Whereas newspaper headlines have focused on links between cannabis and psychosis, less attention has been paid to the much more common problem of cannabis addiction. Certain cognitive changes have also been attributed to cannabis use, although t...
Published on Feb 1, 2016in Translational Psychiatry 5.18
Cja Morgan33
Estimated H-index: 33
(University of Exeter),
Tom P. Freeman20
Estimated H-index: 20
(UCL: University College London)
+ 1 AuthorsHv Curran22
Estimated H-index: 22
(UCL: University College London)
Smoking cannabis daily doubles an individual's risk of developing a psychotic disorder, yet indicators of specific vulnerability have proved largely elusive. Genetic variation is one potential risk modifier. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the AKT1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes have been implicated in the interaction between cannabis, psychosis and cognition, but no studies have examined their impact on an individual's acute response to smoked cannabis. A total 442 healthy you...
Cited By4
Newest
Published in bioRxiv
Musa Sami4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Diego Quattrone8
Estimated H-index: 8
+ -3 AuthorsIlaria Tarricone16
Estimated H-index: 16
Aims: First Episode Psychosis (FEP) patients who use cannabis experience more frequent psychotic and euphoric intoxication experiences compared to controls. It is not clear whether this is consequent to patients being more vulnerable to the effects of cannabis use or to their heavier pattern of use. We aimed to determine whether extent of use predicted psychotic-like and euphoric intoxication experiences in FEP patients and controls and whether this differs between groups. Methods: We analysed d...
Published on May 1, 2019in The Lancet Psychiatry 18.33
M. Di Forti34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Mental Health Foundation),
Diego Quattrone8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Mental Health Foundation)
+ 84 AuthorsCaterina La Cascia8
Estimated H-index: 8
(University of Palermo)
Summary Background Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of later psychotic disorder but whether it affects incidence of the disorder remains unclear. We aimed to identify patterns of cannabis use with the strongest effect on odds of psychotic disorder across Europe and explore whether differences in such patterns contribute to variations in the incidence rates of psychotic disorder. Methods We included patients aged 18–64 years who presented to psychiatric services in 11 sites across E...
Published on May 1, 2019in Life Sciences 3.45
Marika Premoli3
Estimated H-index: 3
(University of Brescia),
Francesca Aria1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Brescia)
+ 6 AuthorsAndrea Mastinu12
Estimated H-index: 12
(University of Brescia)
Abstract The pharmacological research on the Cannabis sativa -derived compounds has never terminated. Among the phytocannabinoids without psychotropic effects, the prevalent one in Cannabis is cannabidiol (CBD). Although CBD was initially considered a type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) antagonist, it did not show a good cannabinoidergic activity. Furthermore, heterogeneous results were obtained in experimental animal models of anxiety disorders, psychotic stages and neurodegenerative diseases. R...
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Pharmacology & Therapeutics 9.40
Michael A P Bloomfield8
Estimated H-index: 8
,
Chandni Hindocha10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UCL: University College London)
+ 7 AuthorsTom P. Freeman20
Estimated H-index: 20
Abstract The laws governing cannabis are evolving worldwide and associated with changing patterns of use. The main psychoactive drug in cannabis is Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a partial agonist at the endocannabinoid CB 1 receptor. Acutely, cannabis and THC produce a range of effects on several neurocognitive and pharmacological systems. These include effects on executive, emotional, reward and memory processing via direct interactions with the endocannabinoid system and indirect effects on...
Published on Feb 1, 2019in European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 3.19
Valentina Lorenzetti18
Estimated H-index: 18
(ACU: Australian Catholic University),
Yann Chye4
Estimated H-index: 4
(Monash University)
+ 2 AuthorsCarl A. Roberts6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Liverpool)
Regular cannabis use is associated with adverse cognitive and mental health outcomes that have been ascribed to aberrant neuroanatomy in brain regions densely innervated with cannabinoid receptors. Neuroanatomical differences between cannabis users and controls have been assessed in multiple structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) studies. However, there is heterogeneity in the results leading to cautious interpretation of the data so far. We examined the sMRI evidence to date in human cann...