A collaborative, mixed-methods evaluation of a low-cost, handheld 3D imaging system for child anthropometry.
: 3D imaging for body measurements is regularly used for design of garments and ergonomic products. The development of low-cost 3D scanners provided an opportunity to extend the use of 3D imaging to the health sector. We developed and tested the AutoAnthro System, the first mobile, low-cost, full-body, 3D imaging system designed specifically for child anthropometry. This study evaluated the efficiency, invasiveness, and user experience of the AutoAnthro System. We used a mixed-methods, collaborative approach that included a quantitative time-motion study and qualitative interviews of anthropometrists. For cooperative children, anthropometrists considered the use of 3D imaging an easy, "streamlined experience," but with uncooperative children, anthropometrists reported that capturing a good quality scan was out of their control. The mean time to complete a full set of scans was 68 s (standard deviation [SD] 29), compared with 135 s (SD 22) for a set of manual measurements (stature, head circumference, and arm circumference). We observed that crying was more common during manual measurement, and anthropometrist interviews confirmed that 3D imaging was less stressful for children than manual measurement. In a previous publication, we showed the potential of 3D imaging to produce reliable and accurate measurements. In this study, we found that anthropometrists were not ready to abandon manual equipment for 3D scanners because of difficulty in measuring uncooperative children. Revising the AutoAnthro System to address anthropometrists' concerns on capturing good quality scans of uncooperative children should help to facilitate widespread use of 3D imaging for child anthropometry.