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Association of In Utero Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers With the Risk of Hypospadias

Published on Sep 1, 2018in JAMA Pediatrics12.00
· DOI :10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.1492
Shirley Poon4
Estimated H-index: 4
(U of T: University of Toronto),
Gideon Koren83
Estimated H-index: 83
(UWO: University of Western Ontario)
+ 5 AuthorsDarius J. Bägli38
Estimated H-index: 38
Cite
Abstract
Importance Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are added to many consumer products as flame retardants, and their endocrine-disrupting properties are a growing health concern in pregnancy. Objective To investigate whether in utero PBDE exposure as measured in maternal hair is associated with increased risk for hypospadias. Design, Setting, and Participants In this case-control study, the setting was the urology clinic of a tertiary pediatric hospital between January 3, 2011, and April 1, 2013. Participants were children diagnosed as having hypospadias and their mothers and a control group of children without hypospadias and their mothers. Dates of data analysis were September 3, 2017, to December 28, 2017. Exposures Gestational exposure to 8 PBDEs as measured in the 3-cm segment closest to the skull of maternal hair by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy as a proxy for in utero exposure. The mothers resided in the same household for the duration of their pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures Difference in total maternal hair PBDE levels between the hypospadias and control groups. Results Total PBDE levels were significantly higher among mothers of infants with hypospadias (n = 152) (total PBDE level, 51.4 pg/mg; interquartile range, 35.8-78.5 pg/mg) than among controls (n = 64) (total PBDE level, 35.8 pg/mg; interquartile range, 18.1-69.9 pg/mg) ( P  = .02). Of the 152 women with sufficient hair samples for analysis in the case group, 89 completed a questionnaire and were included in a multivariable analysis, and of the 64 women with sufficient hair samples for analysis in the control group, 54 completed a questionnaire and were included in a multivariable analysis. Adjusting for potential confounders, hypospadias was associated with a relative 48.2% (95% CI, 23.2%-65.4%) higher maternal level of total PBDE levels in the multivariable analysis. Conclusions and Relevance In this analysis, mothers of children with hypospadias were exposed during pregnancy to significantly higher levels of PBDEs. The results of this study suggest that level of exposure to PBDEs during gestation may have a role in the etiology of hypospadias.
  • References (28)
  • Citations (3)
Cite
References28
Newest
Published on May 24, 2017in Environmental Health Perspectives8.05
Cynthia G. Goodyer36
Estimated H-index: 36
(McGill University),
Shirley Poon4
Estimated H-index: 4
(U of T: University of Toronto)
+ 9 AuthorsSumit Dave14
Estimated H-index: 14
(London Health Sciences Centre)
Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants found in North American household products during the past four decades. These chemicals leach out in dust as products age, e...
Published on Dec 16, 2014in Environmental Science & Technology7.15
Shirley Poon4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Michael G. Wade24
Estimated H-index: 24
+ 11 AuthorsSheila R. Ernest5
Estimated H-index: 5
The efficacy of using hair as a biomarker for exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants was assessed in humans and an animal model. Paired human hair and serum samples were obtained from adult men and women (n = 50). In parallel, hair, serum, liver, and fat were collected from adult male Sprague–Dawley rats exposed to increasing doses of the PBDE mixture found in house dust for 70 days via the diet. All samples were analyzed by GC-MS for eight common PBDEs: BDE-28, -47, -...
Published on Dec 1, 2014in Chemosphere5.11
Heather M. Stapleton54
Estimated H-index: 54
(Duke University),
John Misenheimer1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Duke University)
+ 1 AuthorsThomas F. Webster35
Estimated H-index: 35
(BU: Boston University)
Abstract Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), flame retardants (FRs) have been ubiquitously detected at high concentrations in indoor environments; however, with their recent phase-out, more attention is being focused on measurements of exposure to alternative FRs such as organophosphate FRs (OPFRs). In our previous research, we found that PBDE residues measured on children’s handwipes were a strong predictor of serum PBDE levels. Here we build upon this research to examine longitudinal changes...
Published on Jul 15, 2014in Environmental Science & Technology7.15
Andreas Sjödin52
Estimated H-index: 52
(CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention),
Arnold Schecter38
Estimated H-index: 38
(UTD: University of Texas at Dallas)
+ 8 AuthorsWayman E. Turner35
Estimated H-index: 35
(CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) have been measured in surplus serum collected in 2009 from a convenience sample of 300 Texas children (boys and girls) in the birth to 13 years of age range. Serum concentrations of traditional persistent organic pollutants such as 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) and p,p′-DDE did not change consistently with age. By contrast, serum concentrations of tetra-, pe...
Published on Apr 1, 2014in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring2.05
Amanda Carnevale5
Estimated H-index: 5
,
Katarina Aleksa16
Estimated H-index: 16
+ 1 AuthorsGideon Koren80
Estimated H-index: 80
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Journal of Andrology3.11
Sl L. Carmichael2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Stanford University),
Js S. Witte4
Estimated H-index: 4
(UCSF: University of California, San Francisco)
+ 2 AuthorsGm M. Shaw2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Stanford University)
SUMMARY We examined whether variants in genes related to sex hormone biosynthesis and metabolism were associated with hypospadias in humans. We examined 332 relatively common tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in 20 genes. Analyses included 633 cases (84 mild, 322 moderate, 212 severe and 15 undetermined severity) and 855 population-based non-malformed male controls born in California from 1990 to 2003. We used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence...
Published on Jul 1, 2013in Toxicology3.55
Xinxin Li3
Estimated H-index: 3
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences),
Yu Gao10
Estimated H-index: 10
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
+ 1 AuthorsGuibin Jiang1
Estimated H-index: 1
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Abstract Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been shown to affect the estrogen receptor (ER) signaling pathway, and one of the proposed disruption mechanisms is direct binding of hydroxylated PBDE (OH-PBDE) to ER. In this paper, the binding affinity of 22 OH-PBDEs with different degrees of bromination to ER was assessed quantitatively using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor technique. Seven OH-PBDEs were found to bind directly with ER with K D ranging from 1.46 x 10 −7 M to 7.90 x 10...
Published on May 1, 2012in Forensic Science International1.99
Katarina Aleksa6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UW: University of Waterloo),
Amanda Carnevale5
Estimated H-index: 5
(U of T: University of Toronto)
+ 1 AuthorsGideon Koren80
Estimated H-index: 80
Abstract Introduction Cryptorchidism, or undescended/maldescended testis, is the most common birth defect of male genitalia. Its prevalence has been increasing over the past few decades. This may be due to an increase in the prevalence of anti-androgenic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls, organochloride pesticides, plasticizers and fungicides. A newer group of chemicals, brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are being implicated as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. These chemicals are used...
Published on May 1, 2012in Human Reproduction Update12.88
Loes F.M. van der Zanden9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre),
Iris A.L.M. van Rooij25
Estimated H-index: 25
(Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre)
+ 3 AuthorsNel Roeleveld39
Estimated H-index: 39
(Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre)
BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation of the male external genitalia. Most cases have an unknown aetiology, which is probably a mix of monogenic and multifactorial forms, implicating both genes and environmental factors. This review summarizes current knowledge about the aetiology of hypospadias. METHODS: Pubmed was used to identify studies on hypospadias aetiology published between January 1995 and February 2011. Reference lists of the selected manuscripts were also search...
Published on Jun 15, 2011in Environmental Science & Technology7.15
Heather M. Stapleton54
Estimated H-index: 54
(Duke University),
S. Klosterhaus13
Estimated H-index: 13
+ 5 AuthorsArlene Blum16
Estimated H-index: 16
With the phase-out of PentaBDE in 2004, alternative flame retardants are being used in polyurethane foam to meet flammability standards. However, insufficient information is available on the identity of the flame retardants currently in use. Baby products containing polyurethane foam must meet California state furniture flammability standards, which likely affects the use of flame retardants in baby products throughout the U.S. However, it is unclear which products contain flame retardants and a...
Cited By3
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 2019in JAMA Pediatrics12.00
Shanxi A. Jen (Imperial College London), Nicole Quah Qin Xian (Imperial College London), Wan Wei Ang (Imperial College London)
Published on Jan 1, 2019in JAMA Pediatrics12.00
Gideon Koren80
Estimated H-index: 80
,
Katarina Aleksa16
Estimated H-index: 16