A Risk Calculator to Predict the Individual Risk of Conversion From Subthreshold Bipolar Symptoms to Bipolar Disorder I or II in Youth
Published on Oct 1, 2018in Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry6.39
· DOI :10.1016/j.jaac.2018.05.023
Objective Youth with subthreshold mania are at increased risk of conversion to bipolar disorder (BP) I/II. Predictors for conversion have been published for the group as a whole. However, risk factors are heterogeneous, indicating the need for personalized risk assessment. Method One hundred forty youth with BP not otherwise specified (BP-NOS; 6–17 years old) followed through the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study with at least 1 follow-up assessment before conversion to BP-I/II were included. Youths were assessed on average every 7 months (median 11.5 years) using standard instruments. Risk predictors reported in the literature were used to build a 5-year risk calculator. Discrimination was measured using the time-dependent area under the curve after 1,000 bootstrap resamples. Calibration was evaluated by comparing observed with predicted probability of conversion. External validation was performed using an independent sample of 58 youths with BP-NOS recruited from the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study. Results Seventy-five (53.6%) COBY youths with BP-NOS converted to BP-I/II, of which 57 (76.0%) converted within 5 years. Earlier-onset BP-NOS, familial hypomania/mania, and high mania, anxiety, and mood lability symptoms were important predictors of conversion. The calculator showed excellent consistency between the predicted and observed risks of conversion, good discrimination between converters and non-converters (area under the curve 0.71, CI 0.67–0.74), and a proportionally increasing rate of converters at each successive risk class. Discrimination in the external validation sample was good (area under the curve 0.75). Conclusion If replicated, the risk calculator would provide a useful tool to predict personalized risk of conversion from subsyndromal mania to BP-I/II and inform individualized interventions and research.