Health impacts of different edible oils prepared from coconut (Cocos nucifera): A comprehensive review
Published on Oct 1, 2018in Trends in Food Science and Technology8.52
· DOI :10.1016/j.tifs.2018.07.025
Abstract Background Edible oils, preferably plant origin are rich sources of fatty acids and other lipophilic antioxidants to the body. Among these, oils derived from the coconut kernel ( Cocos nucifera ) are widely used in India and the Asia Pacific, which includes copra oil (CO), virgin coconut oil (VCO) and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) oil. Based on the mode of preparation, their composition and biological effects vary. Scope and approach This review compares the physicochemical and biological properties of coconut oils prepared by different methods. The metabolism of coconut oil and its predominant content lauric acid is also explained. This review emphasizes the use of VCO in the prevention and amelioration of several degenerative diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancers, over CO or RBD oils. Key findings and Conclusion There are no evident differences in the fatty acid profiles of CO, VCO and RBD oils. However, they differ in their polyphenol contents, which are reported to be high in VCO, possibly due to less harsh treatment during its preparation. Various epidemiological and clinical reports indicating the health risk of coconut oils could be pertinent to the data on the individuals consumed CO/RBD oil, which lacks polyphenols. Whereas, VCO have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, lipid-lowering and cytoprotective efficacies, which may be attributed to its higher polyphenolics. Further, emerging studies have indicated that hot-extracted VCO (H-VCO) have a pharmacological advantage over VCO prepared by fermentation. At this juncture, further explorations on the biopharmaceutical potential of VCO have to be undertaken through clinical studies.