Use of Video Review to Investigate Technical Factors That May Be Associated With Delayed Gastric Emptying After Pancreaticoduodenectomy
Importance Technical proficiency at robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy (RPD) and video assessment are promising tools for understanding postoperative outcomes. Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) remains a major driver of cost and morbidity after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Objective To determine if technical variables during RPD are associated with postoperative DGE. Design, Setting, and Participants A retrospective study was conducted of technical assessment performed in all available videos (n = 192) of consecutive RPDs performed at a single academic institution from October 3, 2008, through September 27, 2016. Exposures Video review of gastrojejunal anastomosis during RPD. Main Outcomes and Measures Delayed gastric emptying was classified according to International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery criteria. Video analysis reviewed technical variables specific in the construction of the gastrojejunal anastomosis. Using multivariate analysis, DGE was correlated with known patient variables and technical variables, individually and combined. Results Of 410 RPDs performed, video was available for 192 RPDs (80 women and 112 men; mean [SD] age, 65.7 [11.1] years). Delayed gastric emptying occurred in 41 patients (21.4%; grade A, 15; grade B, 14; and grade C, 12). Patient variables contributing to DGE on multivariate analysis were advanced age (odds ratio [OR] 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.16; P P = .03), and postoperative pseudoaneurysm (OR, 17.29; 95% CI, 2.34-127.78; P = .005). However, technical variables contributing to decreased DGE on multivariate analysis included the flow angle (within 30° of vertical) between the stomach and efferent jejunal limb (OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08-0.79; P = .02), greater length of the gastrojejunal anastomosis (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20-0.77; P = .006), and a robotic-sewn anastomosis (robotic suture vs stapler: OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.09-0.95; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance This study examines modifiable technical factors through the use of review of video obtained at the time of operation and suggests ways by which the surgical construction of the gastrojejunal anastomosis during RPD may reduce the incidence of DGE as a framework for prospective quality improvement.