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Strategies to enhance fresh produce decontamination using combined treatments of ultraviolet, washing and disinfectants

Published on Oct 1, 2018in International Journal of Food Microbiology4.01
· DOI :10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2018.06.014
Runze Huang7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UD: University of Delaware),
Danielle de Vries1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UD: University of Delaware),
Haiqiang Chen32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UD: University of Delaware)
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Abstract
Abstract This study investigated the effect of a water-assisted ultraviolet system (WUV; samples were treated by UV while being immersed in agitated water) on the inactivation of Salmonella on baby spinach, iceberg lettuce, blueberry, grape tomato, and baby-cut carrot. The Salmonella inactivation effect of the WUV system was tested in two scales, and three disinfectants, chlorine, peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), were tested in combination with the system to see whether the Salmonella inactivation effect could be enhanced. The fresh produce samples were dip-inoculated with a Salmonella cocktail to final concentrations of 4.6–7.6 log CFU/g. To simulate the washing process in the industry, fresh produce extracts and/or silicon dioxide were added in the wash water to adjust chemical oxygen demand to ~2000 mg/L and turbidity to >60 NTU. In general, the decontamination efficacy of WUV treatments followed this order: Tomato > Carrot > Lettuce ≈ Blueberry > Spinach. In the small-scale study, WUV alone was able to achieve 0.9, 2.6, >3.6, 1.7, and 2.0 log CFU/g reductions of Salmonella on fresh produce for spinach, lettuce, tomato, blueberry, and carrot, respectively. For all fresh produce items, WUV combined with PAA could achieve significantly (P  Salmonella reduction on fresh produce than chlorine wash and PAA wash. The WUV treatments combined with chlorine or PAA were able to keep residual Salmonella in wash water below the detection limit (2 CFU/mL) for almost all the replicates. Similar Salmonella reductions on fresh produce and in wash water were found in the large-scale study. Considering the decontamination efficacy on fresh produce, the ability to disinfect the wash water, and the cost, we recommend chlorine wash for baby spinach, WUV alone for grape tomato and WUV combined with PAA for iceberg lettuce, blueberry and baby-cut carrot.
  • References (37)
  • Citations (5)
Cite
References37
Newest
Published on Dec 1, 2017in Trends in Food Science and Technology8.52
Xuetong Fan39
Estimated H-index: 39
(ARS: Agricultural Research Service),
Runze Huang7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UD: University of Delaware),
Haiqiang Chen32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UD: University of Delaware)
Abstract Background Microbial food safety and spoilage due to human pathogens and decay-causing microorganisms are the major challenges for the production of fresh produce where contaminations often occur on the surface of the food. Fresh produce cannot be thermally treated as heating adversely affects the organoleptic characteristics and nutrients of the food, and thermally processed fresh produce may not be considered as “fresh” any more. Shortwave ultraviolet (UV-C) is a nonthermal technology...
Published on Sep 1, 2017in International Journal of Food Microbiology4.01
Shuanghuan Guo1
Estimated H-index: 1
(UD: University of Delaware),
Runze Huang7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UD: University of Delaware),
Haiqiang Chen32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UD: University of Delaware)
Abstract With the demand for fresh produce increases in recent decades, concerns for microbiological safety of fresh produce are also raised. To identify effective ultraviolet (UV) light treatment for fresh produce decontamination, we first determined the effect of three forms of UV treatment, dry UV (samples were treated by UV directly), wet UV (samples were dipped in water briefly and then exposed to UV), and water-assisted UV (samples were treated by UV while being immersed in agitated water)...
Published on Mar 1, 2017in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture2.42
Yukiko Wadamori1
Estimated H-index: 1
(LU: Lincoln University (Pennsylvania)),
Ravi Gooneratne12
Estimated H-index: 12
(LU: Lincoln University (Pennsylvania)),
Malik A. Hussain5
Estimated H-index: 5
(LU: Lincoln University (Pennsylvania))
Fresh fruits and vegetables are nutritionally well-recognised as healthy components in diets. The microbiological foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce have been increasing. Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are the most common pathogens that contaminate fresh produce. This review discusses recent foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce, factors that affect microbiological contaminati...
Published on Oct 25, 2016in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition6.70
Asmita Rajwar4
Estimated H-index: 4
(GBPUA&T: G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology),
Pragati Srivastava1
Estimated H-index: 1
(GBPUA&T: G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology),
Manvika Sahgal5
Estimated H-index: 5
(GBPUA&T: G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology)
Fresh fruits and vegetables are an important part of a healthful diet. They provide vitamins, minerals and fiber to help keep our body healthy. Occasionally, fresh fruits and vegetables can become contaminated with harmful bacteria or viruses, which are also known as pathogens. The major family of pathogen associated with food are members of Enterobacteriaceae which commonly form a part of microbiological criteria and their presence is traditionally related to hygiene and safety of foods. Organi...
Published on Oct 1, 2016in Epidemiology and Infection2.05
Luise Müller12
Estimated H-index: 12
,
Charlotte Kjelsø8
Estimated H-index: 8
+ 8 AuthorsC. Gossner7
Estimated H-index: 7
In September 2011, a patient cluster with a rare Salmonella serotype – Strathcona – was identified in Denmark. An outbreak investigation was initiated to reveal the source in order to stop the outbreak. In addition to hypothesis-generating interviews, comparable analyses of patients’ household shopping receipts were conducted. A matched case-control study with 25 cases and 56 population register controls was conducted to test the findings of the hypothesis-generating investigation. In total, 43 ...
Published on Jul 3, 2016in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition6.70
Filiz Yeni2
Estimated H-index: 2
(METU: Middle East Technical University),
S. Yavaş1
Estimated H-index: 1
(METU: Middle East Technical University)
+ 1 AuthorsYeşim Soyer10
Estimated H-index: 10
(METU: Middle East Technical University)
ABSTRACTEvery year millions of people are affected and thousands of them die due to infections and intoxication as a result of foodborne outbreaks, which also cause billions of dollars' worth of damage, public health problems, and agricultural product loss. A considerable portion of these outbreaks is related to fresh produce and caused by foodborne pathogens on fresh produce and mycotoxins. Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak, occurred in Germany in 2011, has attracted a great attention on foodbo...
Published on Dec 1, 2015in International Journal of Food Microbiology4.01
Chuhan Liu2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UD: University of Delaware),
Xinhui Li12
Estimated H-index: 12
(UD: University of Delaware),
Haiqiang Chen32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UD: University of Delaware)
Abstract In this study, a novel set-up using water-assisted UV processing was developed and evaluated for its decontamination efficacy against murine norovirus (MNV-1) inoculated on fresh blueberries for both small and large-scale experimental setups. Blueberries were skin-inoculated with MNV-1 and treated for 1–5 min with UV directly (dry UV) or immersed in agitated water during UV treatment (water-assisted UV). The effect of the presence of 2% (v/v) blueberry juice or 5% crushed blueberries (w...
Published on Nov 6, 2015in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report14.87
S. J. Crowe2
Estimated H-index: 2
,
Barbara E. Mahon24
Estimated H-index: 24
+ 1 AuthorsL. H. Gould9
Estimated H-index: 9
Millions of U.S. residents become ill from foodborne pathogens each year. Most foodborne outbreaks occur among small groups of persons in a localized area. However, because many foods are distributed widely and rapidly, and because detection methods have improved, outbreaks that occur in multiple states and that even span the entire country are being recognized with increasing frequency.This report analyzes data from CDC's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to describe multistate foo...
Published on Sep 1, 2015in International Journal of Food Microbiology4.01
S. Van Haute6
Estimated H-index: 6
(UGent: Ghent University),
Francisco López-Gálvez18
Estimated H-index: 18
(UGent: Ghent University)
+ 4 AuthorsImca Sampers21
Estimated H-index: 21
(UGent: Ghent University)
Abstract A methodology to i) assess the feasibility of water disinfection in fresh-cut leafy greens wash water and ii) to compare the disinfectant efficiency of water disinfectants was defined and applied for a combination of peracetic acid (PAA) and lactic acid (LA) and comparison with free chlorine was made. Standardized process water, a watery suspension of iceberg lettuce, was used for the experiments. First, the combination of PAA + LA was evaluated for water recycling. In this case disinfe...
Published on Sep 1, 2015in International Journal of Food Microbiology4.01
Yaoxin Huang10
Estimated H-index: 10
(UD: University of Delaware),
Robert Sido2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UD: University of Delaware)
+ 1 AuthorsHaiqiang Chen32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UD: University of Delaware)
Abstract We developed and evaluated a small scaled-up water-assisted pulsed light (WPL) system, in which berries were washed in a flume washer while being irradiated by pulsed light (PL). Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was used in combination with PL as an advanced oxidation process and chlorine wash was used as a control. The effects of organic load, water turbidity, berry type and PL energy output on the inactivation of Salmonella using the WPL system were investigated. The combination of WPL an...
Cited By5
Newest
Published on Sep 1, 2019in Food Microbiology4.09
Huaiqiong Chen11
Estimated H-index: 11
(UT: University of Tennessee),
Yue Zhang19
Estimated H-index: 19
(UT: University of Tennessee),
Qixin Zhong31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UT: University of Tennessee)
Abstract To evaluate the feasibility of acidified sodium benzoate (NaB) as alternative washing solutions of fresh produce, the survival of inoculated pathogens, the background molds and yeasts counts, and quality parameters were compared during 4 and 21 °C storage of cherry tomatoes washed with 3000 ppm NaB at pH 2.0, 200 ppm free chlorine at pH 6.5, water adjusted to pH 2.0, and distilled water. The acidified NaB solution was the most effective in reducing the population of Escherichia coli O15...
Published on May 1, 2019in Journal of Food Science2.08
Runze Huang (UD: University of Delaware), Haiqiang Chen32
Estimated H-index: 32
(UD: University of Delaware)
Fresh produce are vulnerable to pathogens during pre- and postharvest stages. Most fresh vegetable and fruits are consumed directly or merely washed with chlorine. We investigated two emerging decontamination technologies, pulse light (PL) and ultraviolet (UV), in combination with washing (referred as water-assisted PL [WPL] and water-assisted UV [WUV]). Blueberries, grape tomatoes, and iceberg lettuce shreds were tested in this study to represent fresh vegetables and fruits with smooth and roug...
Published on May 1, 2019in International Journal of Food Microbiology4.01
Cyrelys Collazo4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Lleida),
Violeta Noguera (University of Lleida)+ 4 AuthorsInmaculada Viñas24
Estimated H-index: 24
(University of Lleida)
Abstract The effectiveness of ultraviolet C light (UV-C) delivered in water (WUV) or in peroxyacetic acid (PAA) for the inactivation and inhibition of L. monocytogenes and S. enterica in ready-to-eat ‘Iceberg lettuce’ and baby spinach leaves, was evaluated throughout chilled storage in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The inhibition of pathogen's growth by sequential pretreatments with UV-C in PAA and then biocontrol using Pseudomonas graminis CPA-7 was assessed during MAP storage at 5 °C an...
Cyrelys Collazo4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Lleida),
Florence Charles (University of Avignon)+ 4 AuthorsInmaculada Viñas24
Estimated H-index: 24
(University of Lleida)
Abstract The efficacy of two irradiation technologies: Ultraviolet-C light (UV-C), applied in water or in diluted peroxyacetic acid, and dry-pulsed light (PL) for the inactivation and growth inhibition of Listeria innocua in fresh-cut broccoli were evaluated. Water-assisted UV-C (WUV) (0.3 and 0.5 kJ/m 2 ) reduced L. innocua initial populations by 1.7 and 2.4 log 10 CFU/g, respectively; the latter dose also inhibited their growth for 8 d at 5 °C. Replacing water with 40 or 80 mg/L peroxyacetic a...
Published on Feb 1, 2019in Current opinion in food science
Françoise Julien-Javaux1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Nestlé),
Cédric Gérard3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Nestlé)
+ 1 AuthorsSophie Zuber8
Estimated H-index: 8
(Nestlé)
Fresh produce such as berries or leafy greens have been linked to microbiological outbreaks in different parts of the world. For some of these outbreaks, contamination was traced back to inappropriate practices at farm level, highlighting the need for mitigation strategies in primary production. This review provides an overview of the main routes of microbial contamination at farm level, along with the elements to consider for risk mitigation/reduction and examples of mitigation strategies for s...