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Intensified chemical weathering during the Permian-Triassic transition recorded in terrestrial and marine successions

Published on Apr 1, 2019in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology2.62
· DOI :10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.06.012
Ying Cao1
Estimated H-index: 1
(China University of Geosciences),
Huyue Song13
Estimated H-index: 13
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 5 AuthorsJinnan Tong26
Estimated H-index: 26
(China University of Geosciences)
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Abstract
Abstract Global warming is inferred to have been one of the main causes of the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary mass extinction. Although a strong temperature rise in tropical sea-surface temperatures during the latest Permian has been documented, coeval climate changes in terrestrial sections are less well-known. Here, we analyzed multiple weathering indexes (including CIA, CIW, and PIA) for two terrestrial sections in North China (Shichuanhe and Yima), all of which show a major excursion toward higher values (greater weathering intensity) around the end-Permian plant extinction (EPPE). At Shichuanhe, the CIA (chemical index of alteration) increases from 70 to 75 over the interval of 11–36 m, which straddles the EPPE at 33 m, and then decreases from 75 to 71 in the overlying strata. At Yima, CIA increases from 63 to 79 over the interval of 57–68 m, extending up to the EPPE at 68 m, and then gradually decreases from 78 to 72 in the overlying strata. These results imply a strong warming event coupled with intense chemical weathering in soil environments leading up to the end-Permian plant extinction. The decline in CIA values following the EPPE may reflect loss of weathered soils through physical erosion rather than climatic cooling. Estimation of atmospheric temperatures from the CIA data indicate rapid rises at Shichuanhe (from ~11.6 °C to 16.5 °C) and Yima (from 9.3 °C to 18.4 °C) during the end-Permian crisis. The findings in this study are consistent with the hypothesis that a sharp temperature rise caused the extinction of terrestrial organisms during the end-Permian crisis.
  • References (114)
  • Citations (3)
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References114
Newest
Published on Oct 1, 2017in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology2.62
Daoliang Chu9
Estimated H-index: 9
(China University of Geosciences),
Jinnan Tong26
Estimated H-index: 26
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 2 AuthorsYunfei Huang6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Yangtze University)
Abstract Correlation between marine and continental Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) strata is crucial for full understanding of the nature of this global extinction event, but it has proved difficult to achieve. Here, we show that two sections in South China and North China record similar mixed continental-marine biota in the post-extinction stratigraphic interval, including conchostracans, plants, insects, marine bivalves and lingulid brachiopods. In addition, the continental P-Tr mass extinction was r...
Published on Sep 1, 2017in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology2.62
Guozhen Xu3
Estimated H-index: 3
(China University of Geosciences),
Qinglai Feng25
Estimated H-index: 25
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 3 AuthorsAllison L. Young3
Estimated H-index: 3
(UC: University of Cincinnati)
Abstract Relatively high-resolution clay mineralogical and chemical index of alteration (CIA) analyses were conducted on the terrestrial Lubei section in southwestern China, to gain a better understanding of the paleoclimatic/paleoenvironmental evolution on land during the Permian-Triassic transition (P-Tr transition). Clay-mineral species include illite-smectite mixed layers (I/S), illite, irregular chlorite-expandable mixed layers (C/E), chlorite, kaolinite, vermiculite, hydroxyl-interlayered ...
Published on May 1, 2017in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology2.62
Yaling Xu2
Estimated H-index: 2
(China University of Geosciences),
Zhong-Qiang Chen34
Estimated H-index: 34
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 3 AuthorsChenyi Tu2
Estimated H-index: 2
(China University of Geosciences)
Abstract As a consequence of the end-Permian mass extinction, microbes proliferated in the post-extinction shallow marine ecosystems, in which they grew as various microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISSs) in siliciclastic settings. This paper reports, for the first time, the discovery of abundant MISSs from the lowest Triassic sandstones of shallow-water margin origin in the Zhihema sections of the southern Qilianshan region, West China. The sandstones are characterized by well-develop...
Published on Nov 1, 2016in Global and Planetary Change4.10
Daoliang Chu9
Estimated H-index: 9
(China University of Geosciences),
Jianxin Yu12
Estimated H-index: 12
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 5 AuthorsLi Tian13
Estimated H-index: 13
(China University of Geosciences)
Abstract The Permian-Triassic boundary marks the greatest mass extinction during the Phanerozoic, which was coupled with major global environmental changes, and is known especially from well-preserved marine fossil records and continuous carbonate deposits. However, the placement of the Permian-Triassic boundary in terrestrial sections and accurate correlation with the marine strata are difficult due to the absence of the key marine index fossils in terrestrial-marine siliciclastic settings. Her...
Steven M. Stanley45
Estimated H-index: 45
(UH: University of Hawaii)
Procedures introduced here make it possible, first, to show that background (piecemeal) extinction is recorded throughout geologic stages and substages (not all extinction has occurred suddenly at the ends of such intervals); second, to separate out background extinction from mass extinction for a major crisis in earth history; and third, to correct for clustering of extinctions when using the rarefaction method to estimate the percentage of species lost in a mass extinction. Also presented here...
Published on Aug 1, 2016in Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society2.91
Michael J. Benton66
Estimated H-index: 66
(UoB: University of Bristol)
Pareiasaurs were important medium- to large-sized herbivores in the Middle and Late Permian, some 268–252 Ma. They are best known from abundant remains of several taxa found in South Africa and Russia, with isolated finds from other parts of the world. Six genera and species of pareiasaurs have been described from China, and yet they have not been reviewed. Of these six, Tsiyuania may be a synonym of Honania, but this taxon is not further considered here. The other four, which were named for sep...
Published on May 1, 2016in Geological Society of America Bulletin3.97
Jianghai Yang14
Estimated H-index: 14
(China University of Geosciences),
Peter A. Cawood66
Estimated H-index: 66
(St And: University of St Andrews)
+ 2 AuthorsJiaxin Yan2
Estimated H-index: 2
(China University of Geosciences)
Paleoflora studies suggest that continental drying occurred associated with the Early Permian deglaciation in southern North America, but not in North China. Both regions occupied tropical latitudes during the Early Permian, but they were separated by the Tethys Ocean. To further constrain the tropical paleoclimate conditions during the Early Permian glacial to deglacial transition, we undertook a weathering geochemistry study on Early Permian mudstone and siltstone samples from southeastern Nor...
Published on Mar 1, 2016in Sedimentary Geology3.24
Chenyi Tu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(China University of Geosciences),
Zhong-Qiang Chen34
Estimated H-index: 34
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 2 AuthorsYuheng Fang8
Estimated H-index: 8
(China University of Geosciences)
Abstract Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISSs) are commonly present in siliciclastic shallow marine settings following the end-Permian mass extinction, but have been rarely reported in the post-extinction terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present six types of well-preserved MISSs from the upper Sunjiagou Formation and lower Liujiagou Formation of Induan (Early Triassic) age in the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China. These MISSs include: polygonal sand cracks, worm-like structur...
Published on Oct 1, 2015in Earth-Science Reviews9.53
Zhong-Qiang Chen34
Estimated H-index: 34
(China University of Geosciences),
Hao Yang18
Estimated H-index: 18
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 14 AuthorsHaishui Jiang17
Estimated H-index: 17
(China University of Geosciences)
Abstract The Meishan section, South China is the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Permian–Triassic boundary (PTB), and is also well known for the best record demonstrating the Permian–Triassic mass extinction (PTME) all over the world. This section has also been studied using multidisciplinary approaches to reveal the possible causes for the greatest Phanerozoic biocrisis of life on Earth; many important scenarios interpreting the great dying have been proposed on the basis of ...
Published on Oct 1, 2015in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology2.62
Daoliang Chu9
Estimated H-index: 9
(China University of Geosciences),
Jinnan Tong26
Estimated H-index: 26
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 6 AuthorsLi Tian13
Estimated H-index: 13
(China University of Geosciences)
Abstract The Lilliput effect following the Permian–Triassic mass extinction and its aftermath has been documented in a variety of marine animal groups, but it is less known in terrestrial and freshwater invertebrates. Here we present new investigations of the size variations of terrestrial ostracods of the genus Darwinula based on fossil records from a Permian–Triassic section on the northern limb of the Dalongkou Anticline section in Northwest China. Quantitative analyses reveal that ostracod t...
Cited By3
Newest
Published on May 1, 2019in Gondwana Research6.48
Jun Chen6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences),
Yi-Gang Xu53
Estimated H-index: 53
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Abstract Current understanding of biodiversity changes in the Permian is presented, especially the consensus and disagreement on the tempo, duration, and pattern of end-Guadalupian and end-Permian mass extinctions. The end-Guadalupian mass extinction (EGME; i.e., pre-Lopingian crisis) is not as severe as previously thought. Moreover, the turnovers of major fossil groups occurred at different temporal levels, therefore the total duration of the end-Guadalupian mass extinction is relatively extend...
Published on Oct 1, 2019in Global and Planetary Change4.10
Wenwei Guo1
Estimated H-index: 1
(China University of Geosciences),
Jinnan Tong26
Estimated H-index: 26
(China University of Geosciences)
+ 4 AuthorsKaixuan Ji (China University of Geosciences)
Abstract Ichnological studies are exceptionally important for reconstruction of ecosystems in the aftermath of mass extinctions, but they have only rarely been undertaken from strata deposited in continental settings during the Permian–Triassic transition. This paper systematically documents seventeen ichnogenera and three ichno-types coupled with plant fossils (mainly equisetaceous stems and roots) from the fluvial–lacustrine Late Permian to Middle Triassic Shichuanhe section in North China. Th...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology2.62
Weiqing Liu1
Estimated H-index: 1
(China University of Geosciences),
Jianxin Yao1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 2 AuthorsYao Chen1
Estimated H-index: 1
Abstract Organic-rich black shales in the Upper Permian Dalong Formation are considered excellent source rocks in the western Hubei Basin, South China. However, the mechanisms of organic matter (OM) accumulation remain controversial. Furthermore, the evolution of primary productivity and ocean hypoxia during the Late Permian in the western Hubei Basin is unclear. In this study, we discuss the paleoclimate, paleoceanography, paleoenvironment and the mechanisms of OM accumulation based on geochemi...