Match!

Effects of training and competition load on neuromuscular recovery, testosterone, cortisol, and match performance during a season of professional football

Published on Jun 7, 2018in Frontiers in Physiology3.201
· DOI :10.3389/fphys.2018.00668
Amber E. Rowell4
Estimated H-index: 4
(VU: Victoria University, Australia),
Robert J. Aughey29
Estimated H-index: 29
(VU: Victoria University, Australia)
+ 3 AuthorsStuart J. Cormack5
Estimated H-index: 5
(ACU: Australian Catholic University)
Sources
Abstract
Introduction: Training load and other measures potentially related to match performance are routinely monitored in team-sport athletes. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of training load on such measures and on match performance during a season of professional football. Materials and Methods: Training load was measured daily as session duration times perceived exertion in 23 A-league football players. Measures of exponentially weighted cumulative training load were calculated using decay factors representing time constants of 3 to 28 days. Players performed a countermovement jump for estimation of a measure of neuromuscular recovery (ratio of flight time to contraction time, FT:CT), and provided a saliva sample for measurement of testosterone and cortisol concentrations 1 d prior to each of 34 matches. Match performance was assessed via ratings provided by five coaching and fitness staff on a 5-point Likert scale. Effects of training load on FT:CT, hormone concentrations, and match performance were modeled as quadratic predictors and expressed as changes in the outcome measure for a change in the predictor of one within-player standard deviation (1 SD) below and above the mean. Changes in each of five playing positions were assessed using standardization and magnitude-based inference. Results: The largest effects of training were generally observed in the 3- to 14-d windows. Center defenders showed a small reduction in coach rating when 14-d smoothed load increased from -1 SD to the mean (-0.31, ±0.15; mean, ±90% confidence limits), whereas strikers and wide midfielders displayed a small increase in coach rating when load increased 1 SD above the mean. The effects of training load on FT:CT were mostly unclear or trivial, but effects of training load on hormones included a large increase in cortisol (102, ±58 %) and a moderate increase in testosterone (24, ±18 %) in center defenders when 3-d smoothed training load increased 1 SD above the mean. A 1 SD increase in training load above the mean generally resulted in substantial reductions in testosterone:cortisol ratio. Conclusion: The effects of recent training on match performance and hormones in A-League football players highlight the importance of position-specific monitoring and training.
Figures & Tables
  • References (55)
  • Citations (4)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
136 Citations
1 Citations
1 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References55
Newest
#1Brendan H. Lazarus (VU: Victoria University, Australia)H-Index: 4
#2Andrew M. Stewart (VU: Victoria University, Australia)H-Index: 12
Last. Robert J. Aughey (VU: Victoria University, Australia)H-Index: 29
view all 7 authors...
Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers. Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System data and perceived wellness over a 24-wk season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weigh...
7 CitationsSource
Objective measures of recovery from football match play could be useful for assessing athletes’ readiness to train, if sensitive to preceding match load. Purpose:To identify the sensitivity of countermovement-jump (CMJ) performance and concentration of salivary testosterone and cortisol relative to elite football match load. Methods:CMJ performance and salivary hormones were measured in 18 elite football players before (27, 1 h) and after (0.5, 18, 42, 66, 90 h) 3 consecutive matches. Match load...
12 CitationsSource
#1Nick B. Murray (ACU: Australian Catholic University)H-Index: 6
#2Tim J. GabbettH-Index: 56
Last. Peter Blanch (Griffith University)H-Index: 30
view all 4 authors...
Objective To determine if any differences exist between the rolling averages and exponentially weighted moving averages (EWMA) models of acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) calculation and subsequent injury risk. Methods A cohort of 59 elite Australian football players from 1 club participated in this 2-year study. Global positioning system (GPS) technology was used to quantify external workloads of players, and non-contact ‘time-loss’ injuries were recorded. The ACWR were calculated for a range...
30 CitationsSource
#1John A. Sampson (UOW: University of Wollongong)H-Index: 9
#2Hugh H. K. Fullagar (Saarland University)H-Index: 11
Last. Andrew Murray (UO: University of Oregon)H-Index: 8
view all 3 authors...
A series of letters have argued for alternatives to acute:chronic workloads or the methods by which the ratio is calculated when predicting injury risks. Based on the hypothetical data presented by Menaspa,1 Williams et al ,2 argue that an exponentially weighted moving average (EMWA) to emphasise the importance of workloads towards the end of the calculation cycle may be more appropriate. A case is presented in one example (athlete 3) where EWMA calculates a greater injury risk than rolling aver...
2 CitationsSource
#1Sean WilliamsH-Index: 10
#2Grant TrewarthaH-Index: 23
Last. Keith Stokes (EPSRC: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council)H-Index: 25
view all 5 authors...
Purpose:Numerous derivative measures can be calculated from the simple session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), a tool for monitoring training loads (eg, acute:chronic workload and cumulative loads). The challenge from a practitioner’s perspective is to decide which measures to calculate and monitor in athletes for injury-prevention purposes. The aim of the current study was to outline a systematic process of data reduction and variable selection for such training-load measures. Methods:Trai...
17 CitationsSource
#1Arne Jaspers (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)H-Index: 6
#2Michel S. Brink (UG: University of Groningen)H-Index: 14
Last. Werner F. Helsen (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)H-Index: 5
view all 5 authors...
Background In professional senior soccer, training load monitoring is used to ensure an optimal workload to maximize physical fitness and prevent injury or illness. However, to date, different training load indicators are used without a clear link to training outcomes.
25 CitationsSource
Assessing responses to soccer match play is limited by match variability or unrealistic simulations. To address this, the biological, perceptual, and performance responses were assessed using a self-paced, simulated soccer match protocol using a nonmotorized treadmill. Twelve male team-sport athletes performed the 90-minute simulation. Match activity, quadriceps twitch interpolation (voluntary activation [%VA] and potentiated twitch [POT]), biochemical markers, strength and power performance, ra...
4 CitationsSource
#1Sean Williams (University of Bath)H-Index: 10
#2Stephen West (University of Bath)H-Index: 2
Last. Keith Stokes (University of Bath)H-Index: 25
view all 4 authors...
We read with great interest the recent letter, “Time to bin the term ‘overuse’ injury: is ‘training load error’ a more accurate term?”1 and in particular its associated PostScript correspondence, “Are rolling averages a good way to assess training load for injury prevention?”2 We are currently investigating the association between training loads and injury risk,3 and so we have also been considering the best way to model this relationship. We share Dr Menaspa's concerns regarding the use of roll...
31 CitationsSource
Purpose:To analyze the match running profile, distance traveled over successive 15 min of match play, heart rates (HRs), and index of performance efficiency (effindex) of professional soccer players with a global positioning system (GPS) and HR in official competition.Methods:Twenty-six professional players were investigated during full matches in competitive club-level matches (N = 223). Time–motion data and HR were collected using GPS and HR technology.Results:The relative total distance was 1...
17 CitationsSource
#1Yvonne Kilian (German Sport University Cologne)H-Index: 4
#2Florian Azad Engel (KIT: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology)H-Index: 5
Last. Joachim Mester (German Sport University Cologne)H-Index: 24
view all 6 authors...
Purpose The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs high-volume training (HVT) on salivary stress markers [cortisol (sC), testosterone (sT), alpha-amylase (sAA)], metabolic and cardiorespiratory response in young athletes.
10 CitationsSource
Cited By4
Newest
#1Alysson Afonso Nadalin Enes (UFPR: Federal University of Paraná)
#2Gustavo Oneda (UFPR: Federal University of Paraná)
Last. Raul Osiecki (UFPR: Federal University of Paraná)H-Index: 5
view all 8 authors...
ABSTRACTPurpose: To analyze the contribution of physical measures and external load in the match-based internal load of elite soccer players. Methods: Twenty-three elite soccer players (n = 23, age...
Source
INTRODUCTION: The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) is widely adopted to quantify internal training load (ITL) in professional football. The aim of this study was to systematically review the use RPE-based methods in professional football. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Observational studies conducted during training routines of professional football players over a minimum of one-week were selected based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement. EVIDENCE SYNTHESI...
Source
Purpose:Insufficient recovery can lead to a decrease in performance and increase the risk of injury and illness. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol as a marker of recovery in e...
Source
#1Kieran Howle (UTS: University of Technology, Sydney)H-Index: 2
#2Adam WatersonH-Index: 3
Last. Rob Duffield (UTS: University of Technology, Sydney)H-Index: 35
view all 3 authors...
AbstractObjectives: To investigate player responses 48 h post single (SM) and multi-match (MM) weeks on two subjective and three objective outcome measures to infer recovery status. Methods: From 4...
Source
#1Johannes Grünbichler (University of Innsbruck)
#2Peter Federolf (University of Innsbruck)H-Index: 18
Last. Hannes Gatterer (University of Innsbruck)H-Index: 19
view all 3 authors...
ABSTRACTThe current study introduces a new index for external and internal workload, “workload efficiency”, and assesses in professional soccer the influence of pre-match training load on match wor...
Source
#1Pedro Jatene (Universidade Municipal de São Caetano do Sul)
#2Gustavo s Silva dos Santos (Universidade Municipal de São Caetano do Sul)
Last. Daniel Leite Portella (Universidade Municipal de São Caetano do Sul)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
This study compared internal load variable dynamics across three consecutive football matches and investigated its relationship with the number of sprints performed by players. Twenty-three male players had blood and salivary samples collected for hormonal concentration (testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone-cortisol ratio), and serum analysis (interleukin-6, interleukin-1-beta, and c-reactive-protein), respectively. Sprints were measured through Global Position System devices. Testosterone a...
Source
#1Aaron D. HeishmanH-Index: 2
Last. Michael G. BembenH-Index: 38
view all 6 authors...
The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate differences in Reactive Strength Index Modified (RSIMod) and Flight Time to Contraction Time Ratio (FT:CT) during the countermovement jump (CMJ) performed without the arm swing (CMJNAS) compared to the CMJ with the arm swing (CMJAS), while exploring the relationship within each variable between jump protocols. A secondary purpose sought to explore the relationship between RSIMod and FT:CT during both jump protocols. Twenty-two collegiate b...
Source