This study investigated the effectiveness of adding four self-efficacy features to an online statistics lesson, based on Bandura’s four sources of self-efficacy information. In a randomized between-subjects experiment, participants learned statistical rules in an example-based online environment with four self-efficacy features added (treatment group) or not (control group). Results of analyses of variance showed that the treatment group performed better on practice (d = 0.36), retention (d = 0.39), and transfer (d = 0.42) tests as well as reporting higher self-efficacy (d = 0.44) and lower task anxiety (d = −0.45). Further, mediation analyses revealed that the effect of treatment group on performance was fully mediated by task anxiety and self-efficacy. The results support the inclusion of self-efficacy features in online mathematics lessons, when the goal is to improve learning outcomes by reducing anxiety and increasing self-efficacy. The results show the utility of applying Bandura’s model of self-eff...

Self-regulated learning (SRL) includes the cognitive, metacognitive, behavioral, motivational, and emotional/affective aspects of learning. It is, therefore, an extraordinary umbrella under which a considerable number of variables that influence learning (e.g., self-efficacy, volition, cognitive strategies) are studied within a comprehensive and holistic approach. For that reason, SRL has become one of the most important areas of research within educational psychology. In this paper, six models ...

ABSTRACTPrevious research has indicated the disconnect between example-based research focusing on worked examples (WEs) and that focusing on modeling examples. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the effect of four different types of examples from the two separate lines of research, including standard WEs, erroneous WEs, expert (masterly) modeling examples, and peer (coping) modeling examples, on student performance (knowledge retention, near transfer, and far transfer), cogniti...

The present study examined the effectiveness of techniques intended to reduce anxiety as students learn mathematical content from a computer-based lesson. In a between-subjects experiment, students learned statistical rules through worked examples in a computer-based learning environment that either did (treatment group) or did not (control group) include anxiety reducing features-a coping message delivered through the lesson by an online pedagogical agent concerning how to manage feelings of an...

Learning from (video) modeling examples in which a model demonstrates how to perform a task is an effective instructional strategy. The model-observer similarity (MOS) hypothesis postulates that (perceived) similarity between learners and the model in terms of age or expertise moderates the effectiveness of modeling examples. Findings have been mixed, however, possibly because manipulations of MOS were often associated with differences in example content and manipulations of (perceived) expertis...

Asking students to imagine the spatial arrangement of the elements in a scientific text constitutes a learning strategy intended to foster deep processing of the instructional material. Two experiments investigated the effects of mental imagery prompts on learning from scientific text. Students read a computer-based text on the human respiratory system (control group), read while being asked to form an image corresponding to each of 9 paragraphs (imagery group), or read while being asked to form...

Two experiments examined how the design of examples affects learning.Written text+picture, auditory text+picture, and demonstration examples were compared.Adolescents learned how to solve probability calculation problems from these examples.Results showed that all examples were equally effective and efficient for learning.Presence of human models did not influence self-efficacy or perceived competence. Example-based learning is an effective instructional strategy for students with low prior know...

In two studies, we investigated whether a recently developed psychometric instrument can differentiate intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Study I revealed a similar three-factor solution for language learning (n=108) and a statistics lecture (n=174), and statistics exam scores correlated negatively with the factors assumed to represent intrinsic and extraneous cognitive load during the lecture. In Study II, university freshmen who studied applications of Bayes' theorem in example...

Adolescents face many academic and emotional challenges in middle school, but notable differences are evident in how well they adapt. What predicts adolescents’ academic and emotional outcomes during this period? One important factor might be adolescents’ implicit theories about whether intelligence and emotions can change. The current study examines how these theories affect academic and emotional outcomes. One hundred fifteen students completed surveys throughout middle school, and their grade...

Basic math skills are important for success in school and everyday life. Yet many people experience apprehension and fear when dealing with numerical information, termed math anxiety. Recently, researchers have started to probe the antecedents of math anxiety, revealing some surprising insights into its onset, risk factors, and remediation.

This study investigated the effect of a vicarious experience on the academic self-efficacy of graduate students enrolled in a statistics and research methods course. Participants (N = 39) completed a self-efficacy scale during the first two meetings of the course. Two weeks later, a portion of these students participated in a randomly assigned intervention to increase statistics self-efficacy. In the experimental condition, a former statistics student came to the class and explained her own math...

This article carries out a comparison of the self-efficacy of teachers in initial training, between the populations of two universities. A questionnaire with two Likert scales is applied in two samples, 836 subjects from the Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica) and 588 from the Universidad de Granada (Spain). The data is reviewed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics (95% confidence interval), correlation tests (Kendall τ correlation coefficient) and variance analysis (Mann–Whitney U t...