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Effects of Ramadan on food intake, glucose homeostasis, lipid profiles and body composition composition

Published on Apr 1, 2019in European Journal of Clinical Nutrition3.114
· DOI :10.1038/s41430-018-0189-8
Seyed Mostafa Nachvak3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences),
Yahya Pasdar5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences)
+ 4 AuthorsJohn R. Speakman82
Estimated H-index: 82
(CAS: Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Abstract
Changes in food consumption patterns during Ramadan may cause metabolic changes, but these have not been well studied. We aimed to determine food intake, glucose homeostasis, lipid profiles, and body composition before, during, and after Ramadan fasting. 160 healthy men were enrolled and investigated at three times (before, at the end of, and 1 month after Ramadan). Body composition was estimated by bio-impedance. Fasting blood samples were obtained for measuring fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profiles and insulin level. Insulin resistance (IR) was identified by the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) of peripheral IR. Food intake was measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire before and during Ramadan. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 and P < 0.05 considered the level of significance. Anthropometric parameters such as body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage (BFP) as well as FBS and circulating triglycerides were all decreased significantly at the end of Ramadan compared with the same indices measured prior to Ramadan (all P < 0.001). In contrast, at the end of Ramadan, HOMA-IR was significantly elevated (P < 0.001). One month after Ramadan, these traits had all started to return to their pre-Ramadan levels, but were still disrupted. Food intake of all food groups except carbohydrates were decreased during Ramadan. Ramadan fasting may lead to both positive and negative health effects such as a decrease in FBS, weight, BFP, and increase in LDL and IR in healthy adults. However, these effects were all transitory.
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References31
Newest
#1Nina Majlund Harder-Lauridsen (UCPH: University of Copenhagen)H-Index: 5
#2Astrid Rosenberg (UCPH: University of Copenhagen)H-Index: 1
Last. Rikke Krogh-Madsen (UCPH: University of Copenhagen)H-Index: 22
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Abstract Objectives There has been a parallel increase in the incidence of obesity and diabetes as well as the number of daily meals. However, evidence is lacking regarding the role of intermittent fasting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a Ramadan model of intermittent fasting (RIF; 14 h of daytime abstinence from food and drinking) for 28 d on body composition, glucose metabolism, and cognitive function. Methods Ten healthy, lean men were included in a nonrandomized, cros...
8 CitationsSource
#1Boya Nugraha (MHH: Hannover Medical School)H-Index: 5
#2Samaneh Khoshandam Ghashang (MHH: Hannover Medical School)H-Index: 1
Last. Christoph Gutenbrunner (MHH: Hannover Medical School)H-Index: 19
view all 4 authors...
Abstract Muslims around the world fast during the lunar month of Ramadan. The month consists of 29 or 30 days, which vary in length depending on geographic location and the time of year. During this month, Muslims abstain from food, drink, smoking, and sex from dawn until sunset. In 2015, Ramadan fell during the summer. As a result, Muslims in Germany fasted 19 h a day. Previous research has shown associations between fasting and mood enhancement. This study aimed to determine the effect of fast...
12 CitationsSource
To examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on body composition, arterial stiffness and resting heart rate.This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Cardiology, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey, during Ramadan 2015, and comprised overweight and obese males. Body composition, arterial stiffness and echocardiography were assessed before and after Ramadan. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis using segmental body composition analyser. Arterial stiffnes...
3 Citations
Introduction: Millions of Muslim patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) fast during Ramadan. However, little is known about the metabolic impact of Ramadan fasting. We aimed to study the changes in body composition and metabolic profi le in this group of patients. Materials and Methods: We studied 29 Southeast Asian Muslim patients with type 2 diabetes; all underwent pre-Ramadan education. Study variables were weight change, body composition (using multifrequency bioimpedance method, InBody S20 ® ...
11 Citations
#1Marta López-Bueno (UGR: University of Granada)H-Index: 3
#2Emilio González Jiménez (UGR: University of Granada)H-Index: 13
Last. Jacqueline Schmidt Río-Valle (UGR: University of Granada)H-Index: 13
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Introduction: Currently there is some controversy to whether Ramadan fasting leads to changes in the nutritional status and body composition of females who observe this practice. Furthermore, recent research suggest that age may be an important factor that affects anthropometric values and body composition just before and at the end of Ramadan. The aim of our study was to analyze the effects of Ramadan fasting, as modulated by age, on the nutritional status and body composition of a group of Mus...
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#1Nikhil V. Dhurandhar (TTU: Texas Tech University)H-Index: 32
#2Dale A. Schoeller (UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)H-Index: 79
Last. David B. Allison (UAB: University of Alabama at Birmingham)H-Index: 114
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#1Meredith W. Reiches (University of Massachusetts Boston)H-Index: 5
#2Sophie E. Moore (Lond: University of London)H-Index: 40
Last. Peter T. Ellison (Harvard University)H-Index: 49
view all 4 authors...
Objectives Ramadan fasting imposes a diurnal rather than a chronic energetic challenge. When Ramadan occurs during the agricultural season in subsistence populations, diurnal and chronic effects combine. The impact of layered energetic challenges on adolescent activity, metabolism, and body composition have not been quantified. This study compares the effects of a Ramadan (30 July–3 October 2009) and subsequent non-Ramadan (14 July–12 August 2010) agricultural season in 67 Gambian subsistence ag...
4 CitationsSource
#1Mohd Adzim Khalili (UniSZA: Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin)H-Index: 4
#2Nurismalina Rozano (UniSZA: Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin)H-Index: 1
Last. Muralidhara Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah (UniSZA: Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin)H-Index: 1
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This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according ...
5 CitationsSource
Background The present study aimed to assess the effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on body weight and composition and the effects of age and sex. Methods Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured, body mass index (BMI) was calculated and fat mass, fat-free mass and percentage body fat were assessed by bioelectrical impedance on 240 adult subjects (male: 158) who fasted between sunrise and sunset for at least 20 days. Measurements were taken 1 week before and 1 week af...
53 CitationsSource
#1Peter Hajek (QMUL: Queen Mary University of London)H-Index: 44
#2Katie Myers (QMUL: Queen Mary University of London)H-Index: 5
Last. Hayden McRobbie (QMUL: Queen Mary University of London)H-Index: 35
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Background During Ramadan, observant Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset for a month. Knowing whether Ramadan fasting affects body weight has implications for health advice to the Muslim community, for understanding the effects of skipping meals on body weight, and for general weight management advice. Methods We compared body weight before and after the Ramadan fast and 1 month later in observant Muslims attending a Mosque in East London, UK. Results In 202 participants who provided weight at t...
35 CitationsSource
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#1Haitham Jahrami (Arabian Gulf University)H-Index: 5
#2Joud Alsibai (College of Health Sciences, Bahrain)H-Index: 1
Last. “Mo'ez Al-Islam” E. Faris (College of Health Sciences, Bahrain)H-Index: 6
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Studies on the effect of Ramadan diurnal intermittent fasting (RDIF) on body weight have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the effect size of body weight changes in healthy, non-athletic Muslims practicing Ramadan fasting, and to assess the effect of covariates such as age, sex, fasting time duration, season, and country, using subgroup analysis, and meta-regression. Covariate adjustments were performed to explain the variabili...
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#1Sibel Akin (Erciyes University)H-Index: 7
#2Firuzan Fırat Ozer (Erciyes University)
Last. Nurhayat Tuğra Özer (Erciyes University)
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Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological effects of Ramadan fasting on muscle function and muscle mass in the older people.
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#2Deepinder KaurH-Index: 2
Last. Pramod KhoslaH-Index: 19
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The period of Ramadan (R) is associated with dramatic changes in eating habits involving extended periods of fasting on a daily basis. The current study assessed whether lipids and lipoproteins were impacted during R in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Forty-five subjects in an outpatient dialysis clinic in Saudi Arabia were evaluated for anthropometric and lipid changes on a monthly basis before, during as well as one and two months after R. In addition to routine biochemical measures, anthr...
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#1“Mo'ez Al-Islam” E. Faris (College of Health Sciences, Bahrain)H-Index: 6
#2Mohamed Madkour (College of Health Sciences, Bahrain)H-Index: 3
Last. Mohammad G. Mohammad (College of Health Sciences, Bahrain)
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Abstract Aim Excessive visceral adiposity is a major risk factor for developing insulin resistance and systemic low-grade inflammation. Ramadan diurnal fasting (RDF) is a religious ritual practiced by more than one billion Muslim throughout the world. It has been considered as one of the most common types of complementary and integrative health practices. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of RDF on visceral adiposity, circulating adipokines and glucoregulatory markers in patients wi...
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#1Naif S. Al-barha (SUS: Shanghai University of Sport)H-Index: 1
#2Khalid S. Aljaloud (KSU: King Saud University)H-Index: 1
There are few studies investigating the role of Ramadan fasting on body composition and the characteristics of metabolic syndrome, especially in hot environments. The main aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition and the characteristics of metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy men. In a randomized design, 44 college students aged 27.6 ± 5.8 years were selected to participate in the present study. Lifestyle was assessed by a developed questionnaire,...
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