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Gross motor skills in toddlers: Prevalence and socio-demographic differences

Published on Dec 1, 2018in Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport3.623
· DOI :10.1016/j.jsams.2018.05.001
Sanne L. C. Veldman5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UOW: University of Wollongong),
Rachel A. Jones26
Estimated H-index: 26
(UOW: University of Wollongong)
+ 2 AuthorsD OkelyAnthony55
Estimated H-index: 55
(Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute)
Abstract
Abstract Objectives Gross motor skills (GMS) are a vital component of a child’s development. Monitoring levels and correlates of GMS is important to ensure appropriate strategies are put in place to promote these skills in young children. The aim of this study was to describe the current level of GMS development of children aged 11–29 months and how these levels differ by age, sex, BMI and socio-economic status. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods This study involved children from 30 childcare services in NSW, Australia. GMS were assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition. Prevalence was reported using the gross motor quotient and both raw and standard scores for locomotor, object manipulation and stationary subtests. Socio-demographics were collected via parent questionnaires. Analyses included t-tests, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVA and linear regression models. Results This study included 335 children (mean age = 19.80 ± 4.08 months, 53.9% boys). For the gross motor quotient, 23.3% of the children scored below average. For the GMS subtests, 34.3% of children scored below average for locomotion, 10.1% for object manipulation and 0.3% for stationary. Boys were more proficient in object manipulation than girls (p = 0.001). GMS were negatively associated with age and a higher socio-economic status (all p  Conclusions This is the first descriptive study to show the prevalence of below average at locomotor skills in toddlers is higher than reported in normative samples. Early commencement of GMS promotion is recommended with a focus on locomotor skills and girls’ object manipulation skills.
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References24
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#1Leah E. Robinson (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 19
#2Sanne L. C. Veldman (UOW: University of Wollongong)H-Index: 5
Last. D OkelyAnthony (UOW: University of Wollongong)H-Index: 55
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Fundamental motor skills (FMS) contribute to positive health trajectories. A high level of competence in ball skills (a subset of FMS) is a predictor for time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity during adolescence. This study examined the effects of a ball skills intervention on ball skill competence among preschool-aged boys and girls. This is a two-armed randomized controlled trial. A total of 124 preschoolers (Mage ± SD = 48.14 ± 6.62 months) were randomly assigned to o...
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#1Sanne L. C. Veldman (UOW: University of Wollongong)H-Index: 5
#2Kara K. Palmer (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 6
Last. Leah E. Robinson (UM: University of Michigan)H-Index: 19
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Abstract Objectives Evidence supports that girls are less proficient than boys at performing ball skills. This study examined the immediate and long-term effects of a ball skill intervention on preschool-age girls’ ball skill performance. Design Randomized controlled trial. Methods Girls ( M age = 47.24 ± 7.38 months) were randomly assigned to a high autonomy, mastery-based 9-week motor skill intervention (the Children's Health Activity Motor Program; CHAMP, 540 min; n = 38) or a control group (...
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#1Rute Santos (University of Porto)H-Index: 26
#2Dylan P. Cliff (UOW: University of Wollongong)H-Index: 29
Last. D OkelyAnthony (UOW: University of Wollongong)H-Index: 55
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Background The educational and cognitive differences associated with low socioeconomic status begin early in life and tend to persist throughout life. Coupled with the finding that levels of sedentary time are negatively associated with cognitive development, and time spent active tends to be lower in disadvantaged circumstances, this highlights the need for interventions that reduce the amount of time children spend sitting and sedentary during childcare. The proposed study aims to assess the e...
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#1Farid Bardid (UGent: Ghent University)H-Index: 7
#2Floris Huyben (Vrije Universiteit Brussel)H-Index: 3
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AIM: This study aimed to understand the fundamental motor skills (FMS) of Belgian children using the process-oriented Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2) and to investigate the suitability of using the United States (USA) test norms in Belgium. METHODS: FMS were assessed using the TGMD-2. Gender, age and motor performance were examined in 1614 Belgian children aged 3-8 years (52.1% boys) and compared with the US reference sample. RESULTS: More proficient FMS performance was ...
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#1Lisa M. Barnett (Deakin University)H-Index: 29
#2Samuel K. Lai (Deakin University)H-Index: 5
Last. D OkelyAnthony (UOW: University of Wollongong)H-Index: 55
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Background Gross motor competence confers health benefits, but levels in children and adolescents are low. While interventions can improve gross motor competence, it remains unclear which correlates should be targeted to ensure interventions are most effective, and for whom targeted and tailored interventions should be developed.
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#1Sanne L. C. Veldman (UOW: University of Wollongong)H-Index: 5
#2Rachel A. Jones (UOW: University of Wollongong)H-Index: 26
Last. D OkelyAnthony (Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute)H-Index: 55
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Objective The objective of this study was to provide an update of the evidence on the efficacy of gross motor development interventions in young children (0–5 years) from 2007 to 2015. Methods Searches were conducted of six electronic databases: PUBMED, Medline (Ovid), ERIC (Ebsco), Embase, SCOPUS and Psychinfo. Studies included any childcare-based, preschool-based, home-based, or community-based intervention targeting the development of gross motor skills including statistical analysis of gross...
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#1Sanne L. C. Veldman (UOW: University of Wollongong)H-Index: 5
#2D OkelyAnthony (UOW: University of Wollongong)H-Index: 55
Last. Rachel A. Jones (UOW: University of Wollongong)H-Index: 26
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Summary.—This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a gross motor skill program for toddlers. An 8-wk. skills program in which children practiced three skills was implemented for 10 min. daily in two randomly designated childcare centers. Two other centers served as the control group. Recruitment and retention rates were collected for feasibility. Data on professional development, children's participation, program duration, and appropriateness of the lessons we...
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#1Irene M. J. van der Fels (UMCG: University Medical Center Groningen)H-Index: 1
#2Sanne C.M. te Wierike (UMCG: University Medical Center Groningen)H-Index: 3
Last. Chris Visscher (UMCG: University Medical Center Groningen)H-Index: 35
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a b s t r a c t Objectives: This review aims to give an overview of studies providing evidence for a relationship between motor and cognitive skills in typically developing children. Design: A systematic review. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychINFO were searched for relevant articles. A total of 21 articles were included in this study. Methodological quality was independently assessed by two reviewers. Motor and cognitive skills were divided into six categories. Results: There was eith...
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#1Susanna Iivonen (University of Jyväskylä)H-Index: 5
#2Arja Sääkslahti (University of Jyväskylä)H-Index: 13
Fundamental motor skills (FMS) affect children's physical, social, and cognitive development. To plan successful interventions when promoting the development of children's FMS, the underlying positive determinants for the acquisition of FMS competence during preschool years need to be identified. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify positive determinants of FMS such as stability, locomotor, and manipulative movements in children between the ages of three and six. Five electronic...
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#1Linda Saraiva (IPN: Instituto Politécnico Nacional)H-Index: 6
#2Luis Rodrigues (IPN: Instituto Politécnico Nacional)H-Index: 22
Last. João BarreirosH-Index: 13
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AbstractBackground: Biological factors can affect the motor development process of children. However, the magnitude of these effects throughout the developmental process remains fairly unknown.Aim: To determine the influence of age, sex and selected somatic measures on the motor performance of pre-school children.Subjects and methods: Three hundred and sixty-seven pre-schoolers (172 boys and 195 girls), aged from 3–5 years old, were recruited from 10 public pre-schools located in the district of...
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