Canada’s Adventive Rove Beetle (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) Fauna: A Long-Term Case Study on the Detection, Origin, Introduction Pathways, and Dynamic Distribution of Non-native Beetles
Published on Jan 1, 2018
· DOI :10.1007/978-3-319-70257-5_5
The family Staphylinidae, or rove beetles , consists of more than 62,290 described species worldwide, of which 1682 species have been recently recorded from Canada. One hundred and fifty-three of these species, in 73 genera and 13 subfamilies, are confirmed here as adventive; they constitute about 9% of the Canadian fauna and mostly originate from the western Palaearctic region. The highest number of adventive species is found in the Atlantic Provinces, Quebec, Ontario, and coastal British Columbia, which are areas with a long history of trade with Europe and Asia. Important historical pathways have been organic matter associated with livestock and soil used as dry ballast in ships destined for North America from Europe. Over Canada’s trade history, moss and soil, likely imported with plant stock, have become more important. Unlike other beetles, relatively few staphylinids associated with woody organic matter have become established in North America as adventive. Although it is difficult to reconstruct precise introduction timelines, it is clear that adventive rove beetle species have recently and will continue to become established in North America. The combination of high diversity , inadequate taxonomic knowledge, and incomplete sequence reference libraries poses challenges to the accurate and rapid detection of adventive rove beetles in Canada.