The Transplantation of ω3 PUFA–Altered Gut Microbiota of fat-1 Mice to Wild-Type Littermates Prevents Obesity and Associated Metabolic Disorders
Altering the gut microbiome may be beneficial to the host and recently arose as a promising strategy to manage obesity. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)–mediated alterations in the microbiota to metabolic parameter changes in mice. Four groups were compared: male fat-1 transgenic mice (with constitutive production of ω3 PUFAs) and male wild-type (WT) littermates fed an obesogenic (high fat/high sucrose [HFHS]) or a control diet. Unlike WT mice, HFHS-fed fat-1 mice were protected against obesity, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis. Unlike WT mice, fat-1 mice maintained a normal barrier function, resulting in a significantly lower metabolic endotoxemia. The fat-1 mice displayed greater phylogenic diversity in the cecum, and fecal microbiota transplantation from fat-1 to WT mice was able to reverse weight gain and to normalize glucose tolerance and intestinal permeability. We concluded that the ω3 PUFA–mediated alteration of gut microbiota contributed to the prevention of metabolic syndrome in fat-1 mice. It occurred independently of changes in the PUFA content of host tissues and may represent a promising strategy to prevent metabolic disease and preserve a lean phenotype.