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CTCF-Binding Elements Mediate Accessibility of RAG Substrates During Chromatin Scanning

Published on Jun 28, 2018in Cell36.216
· DOI :10.1016/J.CELL.2018.04.035
Suvi Jain3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Boston Children's Hospital),
Zhaoqing Ba6
Estimated H-index: 6
(Boston Children's Hospital)
+ 2 AuthorsFrederick W. Alt156
Estimated H-index: 156
(Boston Children's Hospital)
Abstract
Summary RAG endonuclease initiates antibody heavy chain variable region exon assembly from V, D, and J segments within a chromosomal V(D)J recombination center (RC) by cleaving between paired gene segments and flanking recombination signal sequences (RSSs). The IGCR1 control region promotes DJ H intermediate formation by isolating Ds, J H s, and RCs from upstream V H s in a chromatin loop anchored by CTCF-binding elements (CBEs). How V H s access the DJ H RC for V H to DJ H rearrangement was unknown. We report that CBEs immediately downstream of frequently rearranged V H -RSSs increase recombination potential of their associated V H far beyond that provided by RSSs alone. This CBE activity becomes particularly striking upon IGCR1 inactivation, which allows RAG, likely via loop extrusion, to linearly scan chromatin far upstream. V H -associated CBEs stabilize interactions of D-proximal V H s first encountered by the DJ H RC during linear RAG scanning and thereby promote dominant rearrangement of these V H s by an unanticipated chromatin accessibility-enhancing CBE function.
  • References (56)
  • Citations (37)
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References56
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#2Manjeet KumarH-Index: 6
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Summary The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is known to establish long-range DNA contacts that alter the three-dimensional architecture of chromatin, but how the presence of CTCF influences nearby gene expression is still poorly understood. Here, we analyze CTCF chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, RNA sequencing, and Hi-C data, together with genotypes from a healthy human cohort, and measure statistical associations between inter-individual variability in CTCF binding and alternative exon usag...
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#2Su-Chen Huang (BCM: Baylor College of Medicine)H-Index: 8
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Summary The human genome folds to create thousands of intervals, called "contact domains," that exhibit enhanced contact frequency within themselves. "Loop domains" form because of tethering between two loci—almost always bound by CTCF and cohesin—lying on the same chromosome. "Compartment domains" form when genomic intervals with similar histone marks co-segregate. Here, we explore the effects of degrading cohesin. All loop domains are eliminated, but neither compartment domains nor histone mar...
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#1Wibke SchwarzerH-Index: 7
#2Nezar Abdennur (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 14
Last. François SpitzH-Index: 31
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Depletion of chromosome-associated cohesin leads to loss of topologically associating domains in interphase chromosomes, without affecting segregation into compartments, and instead, it unmasks a finer compartment structure that reflects local chromatin and transcriptional activity.
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#2Anton Goloborodko (MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology)H-Index: 15
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The molecular mechanisms underlying folding of mammalian chromosomes remain poorly understood. The transcription factor CTCF is a candidate regulator of chromosomal structure. Using the auxin-inducible degron system in mouse embryonic stem cells, we show that CTCF is absolutely and dose-dependently required for looping between CTCF target sites and insulation of topologically associating domains (TADs). Restoring CTCF reinstates proper architecture on altered chromosomes, indicating a powerful i...
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Understanding how transcriptional enhancers control over 20,000 protein-coding genes to maintain cell-type-specific gene expression programs in all human cells is a fundamental challenge in regulatory biology. Recent studies suggest that gene regulatory elements and their target genes generally occur within insulated neighborhoods, which are chromosomal loop structures formed by the interaction of two DNA sites bound by the CTCF protein and occupied by the cohesin complex. Here, we review eviden...
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Genome function, replication, integrity, and propagation rely on the dynamic structural organization of chromosomes during the cell cycle. Genome folding in interphase provides regulatory segmentation for appropriate transcriptional control, facilitates ordered genome replication, and contributes to genome integrity by limiting illegitimate recombination. Here, we review recent high-resolution chromosome conformation capture and functional studies that have informed models of the spatial and reg...
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T cell antigen receptor δ ( Tcrd ) variable region exons are assembled by RAG-initiated V(D)J recombination events in developing γδ thymocytes. Here, we use linear amplification–mediated high-throughput genome-wide translocation sequencing (LAM-HTGTS) to map hundreds of thousands of RAG-initiated Tcrd D segment ( Trdd1 and Trdd2 ) rearrangements in CD4−CD8− double-negative thymocyte progenitors differentiated in vitro from bone marrow–derived hematopoietic stem cells. We find that Trdd2 joins di...
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Developing B lymphocytes undergo V(D)J recombination to assemble germ-line V, D, and J gene segments into exons that encode the antigen-binding variable region of Ig heavy (H) and light (L) chains. IgH and IgL chains associate to form the B-cell receptor (BCR), which, upon antigen binding, activates B cells to secrete BCR as an antibody. Each of the huge number of clonally independent B cells expresses a unique set of IgH and IgL variable regions. The ability of V(D)J recombination to generate v...
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The relevance of three-dimensional (3D) genome organization for transcriptional regulation and thereby for cellular fate at large is now widely accepted. Our understanding of the fascinating architecture underlying this function is based on microscopy studies as well as the chromosome conformation capture (3C) methods, which entered the stage at the beginning of the millennium. The first decade of 3C methods rendered unprecedented insights into genome topology. Here, we provide an update of deve...
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Variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) (V(D)J) recombination is the first determinant of antigen receptor diversity. Understanding how recombination is regulated requires a comprehensive, unbiased readout of V gene usage. We have developed VDJ sequencing (VDJ-seq), a DNA-based next-generation-sequencing technique that quantitatively profiles recombination products. We reveal a 200-fold range of recombination efficiency among recombining V genes in the primary mouse Igh repertoire. We used ...
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The monoallelic expression of antigen receptor (AgR) genes, called allelic exclusion, is fundamental for highly specific immune responses to pathogens. This cardinal feature of adaptive immunity is achieved by the assembly of a functional AgR gene on one allele, with subsequent feedback inhibition of V(D)J recombination on the other allele. A range of epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in sequential recombination of AgR alleles; however, we now demonstrate that a genetic mechanism contro...
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Immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (Igh) VH, D, and JH gene segments are developmentally assembled into V(D)J exons. RAG endonuclease initiates V(D)J recombination by binding a JH-recombination signal sequence (RSS) within a chromatin-based recombination center (RC) and then, in an orientation-dependent process, scans upstream D-containing chromatin presented by cohesin-mediated loop extrusion for convergent D-RSSs to initiate DJH-RC formation1,2. In primary pro-B cells, 100s of upstream VH-associ...
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