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Cognitive abilities in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome and women with gonadal dysgenesis

Published on Dec 1, 2018in Psychoneuroendocrinology4.01
· DOI :10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.05.003
Anna Strandqvist3
Estimated H-index: 3
(KI: Karolinska Institutet),
Agneta Herlitz39
Estimated H-index: 39
(KI: Karolinska Institutet)
+ 4 AuthorsAnna Nordenström29
Estimated H-index: 29
(KI: Karolinska Institutet)
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Abstract
Abstract Background Many questions regarding the mechanisms behind sex differences in cognitive abilities are still unanswered. On a group level, men typically outperform women on certain spatial tasks, whereas women perform better on certain tests of memory and verbal ability. The prevailing theories concerning the biological predispositions for these and other differences in behaviour and brain function focus on early and prolonged exposure to sex hormones. There is, however, evidence of direct effects of sex chromosomes on sex-typical behaviour in other species. Objectives To study the influence of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on cognition in women with Complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS) and Gonadal dysgenesis (GD). Methods Eighteen women with CAIS, 6 women with 46,XYGD, and 7 women with 46,XXGD were compared with age-matched male and female controls on tests of spatial and verbal abilities, memory functions, and emotion recognition. Results Women with CAIS, XYGD, and XXGD performed similar to female controls on cognitive tasks. However, on a test of emotion recognition, women with XXGD outperformed the other groups, whereas women with CAIS and XYGD performed similar to male controls. Conclusion Our results support theories of androgen effects on cognitive abilities and suggest that factors related to sex chromosomes may influence emotion recognition. Implications of an atypical sex hormone situation and sex chromosome variation are discussed.
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References67
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#1Frida Printzlau (GOSH: Great Ormond Street Hospital)H-Index: 1
#2Jeanne Wolstencroft (GOSH: Great Ormond Street Hospital)H-Index: 1
Last.David Skuse (GOSH: Great Ormond Street Hospital)H-Index: 57
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#1Karson T. F. Kung (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 5
#2Wendy V. Browne (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 4
Last.Melissa Hines (University of Cambridge)H-Index: 50
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#1Judy van Hemmen (Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience)H-Index: 2
#2Dick J. Veltman (VUmc: VU University Medical Center)H-Index: 49
Last.Julie Bakker (University of Liège)H-Index: 31
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#1Sheri A. Berenbaum (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 29
#2Adriene M. Beltz (PSU: Pennsylvania State University)H-Index: 12
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#1Martin Asperholm (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 1
#2Nadja Högman (KI: Karolinska Institutet)
Last.Agneta Herlitz (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 39
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#1Anna Strandqvist (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 3
#2Lisa Örtqvist (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 3
Last.Anna Nordenström (KI: Karolinska Institutet)H-Index: 29
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