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Entwicklung der Motivation

Published on Jan 1, 2018
· DOI :10.1007/978-3-662-53927-9_16
J. Heckhausen (UCI: University of California, Irvine), H. Heckhausen
Abstract
Das Streben nach Wirksamkeit beginnt mit den ersten Verhaltensregungen und wird bald differenzierter, zielgerichteter und reflektierter. Tagliche Interaktionspartner des Kindes spielen eine wichtige Rolle bei der Herausbildung von grundlegenden motivationalen Praferenzen und der Regulation von Handeln. Handlungsbezogene Emotionen werden selbstbewertend als Stolz und Scham und liefern so im Guten wie im Schlechten folgenreiche Handlungsanreize. Die fortschreitende kognitive Entwicklung ermoglicht Schritt fur Schritt ein differenziertes Verstandnis von Aufgabenschwierigkeit, Fahigkeit, Anstrengung und ihrer komplexen Relationen bei der Vorhersage und Erklarung von Leistungsergebnissen. Eingebettet in den universellen Entwicklungswandel entstehen individuelle Unterschiede in impliziten Motiven, spezifischen Anreizen und Erwartungen, generalisierten Leistungszielorientierungen und Starken und Schwachen in der Handlungsregulation.
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