Match!

Patterns vs. Causes and Surveys vs. Experiments: Teaching Scientific Thinking

Published on Mar 1, 2018in American Biology Teacher0.276
· DOI :10.1525/abt.2018.80.3.203
Russell C. Wyeth10
Estimated H-index: 10
(St. Francis Xavier University),
Marjorie J. Wonham1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre)
Abstract
Abstract The scientific method is a core element of all science. Yet, its different implementations are remarkably diverse, based on the varied concepts and protocols required in each specific instance of science. For experienced scientists, coping with this diversity is second nature: they readily and continually ask tractable questions even outside their expertise, and find the process of forming hypotheses, designing tests, and interpreting results fairly transparent. At the secondary school stage, the scientific method is often introduced as a series of clear steps in a pre-planned lab activity. In between these two stages comes the essential step of abandoning the supports of a step-by-step approach, and instead learning how to work through the scientific method to generate and answer one's own questions. In our experience, this process is rarely taught explicitly. Yet, undergraduate students (even strong students) can have difficulty translating their initial questions into testable hypotheses, and ...
  • References (20)
  • Citations (0)
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
4 Citations
2 Citations
31 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References20
Newest
Teaching about nature of science (NOS) is considered as an important goal of science education in various countries. Extensive empirical research about how some aspects of NOS can be effectively taught is also available. The most widely adopted conceptualization of NOS is based on a small number of general aspects of NOS, which fall into two groups: aspects of the nature of scientific knowledge (NOSK) and aspects of scientific inquiry (SI). This conceptualization of NOS will be described in this...
51 CitationsSource
#1Wendy Johnson (MSU: Michigan State University)H-Index: 3
Abstract The National Research Council's Framework for K—12 Science Education and the resulting Next Generation Science Standards call for engaging students in the practices of science to develop scientific literacy. While these documents make the connections between scientific knowledge and practices explicit, very little attention is given to the shared values and commitments of the scientific community that underlie these practices and give them meaning. I argue that effective science educati...
3 CitationsSource
#1Erin E. Shortlidge (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 6
#2Gita Bangera (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 4
Last. Sara E. Brownell (ASU: Arizona State University)H-Index: 23
view all 3 authors...
30 CitationsSource
#1William F. McComas (UA: University of Arkansas)H-Index: 20
The nature of science (NOS) is an often neglected part of science teaching, yet it provides a vital background for students, detailing how science and scientists work and how scientific knowledge is created, validated, and influenced. Here, I review the concept of NOS and some of the challenges to its inclusion in science classes. In addition, I outline proposals, including those in the Next Generation Science Standards, for those aspects of NOS that should be featured in science classes. Finall...
11 CitationsSource
#1Aaron B. Coleman (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 4
#2Diane P. Lam (University of California, Berkeley)H-Index: 1
Last. Lara N. Soowal (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
4 CitationsSource
Abstract Helping students understand and generate appropriate hypotheses and test their subsequent predictions — in science in general and biology in particular — should be at the core of teaching the nature of science. However, there is much confusion among students and teachers about the difference between hypotheses and predictions. Here, I present evidence of the problem and describe steps that scientists actually follow when employing scientific reasoning strategies. This is followed by a p...
1 CitationsSource
#1Megan F. Campanile (IIT: Illinois Institute of Technology)H-Index: 2
#2Norman G. Lederman (IIT: Illinois Institute of Technology)H-Index: 49
Last. Kostas Kampourakis (University of Geneva)H-Index: 12
view all 3 authors...
The purpose of this study was to analyze seven widely used high school biology textbooks in order to assess the nature of science knowledge (NOS) and scientific inquiry (SI) aspects they, explicitly or implicitly, conveyed in the Mendelian genetics sections. Textbook excerpts that directly and/or fully matched our statements about NOS and SI were labeled as explicit and excerpts that partially and/or indirectly matched our statements about NOS and SI were labeled as implicit. There was a running...
14 CitationsSource
#1Nancy Pelaez (Purdue University)H-Index: 12
#2Trevor R. Anderson (Purdue University)H-Index: 14
Last. Samuel N. Postlethwait (Purdue University)H-Index: 2
view all 3 authors...
High-quality undergraduate education is central to the success of all life scientists. Several major bioscience educational issues are the targets of much debate, research, funding, publications, and reports (e.g., Vision and Change). Surprisingly, these issues are considered by modern bioscience instructors as unresolved, despite historical reports that claim the contrary. Here, we illustrate with evidence how, more than 50 years ago, Sam Postlethwait successfully instituted strategies to addre...
5 CitationsSource
#1Annwesa Dasgupta (Purdue University)H-Index: 2
#2Trevor R. Anderson (Purdue University)H-Index: 14
Last. Nancy Pelaez (Purdue University)H-Index: 12
view all 3 authors...
It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimen...
29 CitationsSource
#1Brian A. Woodcock (UWEC: University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire)H-Index: 1
“The Scientific Method” as it has been portrayed in popular and introductory contexts has been declared a myth. The variation that one finds in introductory presentations of “The Scientific Method” is explained by the fact that there is no canonical account among historians and philosophers of science. What, in particular, is wrong with “The Scientific Method”? This essay provides a fairly comprehensive survey of shortcomings of “The Scientific Method”. Included are corrections to several miscon...
9 CitationsSource
Cited By0
Newest