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Turning up the heat: an evaluation of the evidence for heating to promote exercise recovery, muscle rehabilitation and adaptation

Published on Jun 1, 2018in Sports Medicine7.58
· DOI :10.1007/s40279-018-0876-6
Hamish McGorm2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Queensland Academy of Sport),
Llion A. Roberts7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Griffith University)
+ 1 AuthorsJonathan Peake33
Estimated H-index: 33
(Queensland Academy of Sport)
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Abstract
Historically, heat has been used in various clinical and sports rehabilitation settings to treat soft tissue injuries. More recently, interest has emerged in using heat to pre-condition muscle against injury. The aim of this narrative review was to collate information on different types of heat therapy, explain the physiological rationale for heat therapy, and to summarise and evaluate the effects of heat therapy before, during and after muscle injury, immobilisation and strength training. Studies on skeletal muscle cells demonstrate that heat attenuates cellular damage and protein degradation (following in vitro challenges/insults to the cells). Heat also increases the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and upregulates the expression of genes involved in muscle growth and differentiation. In rats, applying heat before and after muscle injury or immobilisation typically reduces cellular damage and muscle atrophy, and promotes more rapid muscle growth/regeneration. In humans, some research has demonstrated benefits of microwave diathermy (and, to a lesser extent, hot water immersion) before exercise for restricting muscle soreness and restoring muscle function after exercise. By contrast, the benefits of applying heat to muscle after exercise are more variable. Animal studies reveal that applying heat during limb immobilisation attenuates muscle atrophy and oxidative stress. Heating muscle may also enhance the benefits of strength training for improving muscle mass in humans. Further research is needed to identify the most effective forms of heat therapy and to investigate the benefits of heat therapy for restricting muscle wasting in the elderly and those individuals recovering from serious injury or illness.
  • References (61)
  • Citations (5)
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References61
Newest
Published on Apr 3, 2018
Antony M. J. Stadnyk1
Estimated H-index: 1
(University of Otago),
Nancy J. Rehrer29
Estimated H-index: 29
(University of Otago)
+ 2 AuthorsJames D. Cotter34
Estimated H-index: 34
(University of Otago)
ABSTRACTHeat is a major stressor during exercise, though its value in driving adaptation is not well understood. Muscle heating can upregulate pathways facilitating protein synthesis and could thereby enhance effects of exercise training, however, few studies have investigated this possibility. We examined whether heating active muscle during resistance training differentially affected physical and functional adaptations. Within a randomised contralateral-limb control study, ten healthy, resista...
Published on Jan 19, 2018in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B6.14
Savant S. Thakur2
Estimated H-index: 2
(University of Melbourne),
Kristy Swiderski6
Estimated H-index: 6
(University of Melbourne)
+ 1 AuthorsGordon S. Lynch48
Estimated H-index: 48
(University of Melbourne)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common and severe of the muscular dystrophies, a group of inherited myopathies caused by different genetic mutations leading to aberrant expression or complete absence of cytoskeletal proteins. Dystrophic muscles are prone to injury, and regenerate poorly after damage. Remorseless cycles of muscle fibre breakdown and incomplete repair lead to progressive and severe muscle wasting, weakness and premature death. Many other conditions are similarly characteri...
Published on Jan 19, 2018in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B6.14
Ashley E. Archer3
Estimated H-index: 3
(KU: University of Kansas),
Alex Von Schulze2
Estimated H-index: 2
(KU: University of Kansas),
Paige C. Geiger29
Estimated H-index: 29
(KU: University of Kansas)
Best known as chaperones, heat shock proteins (HSPs) also have roles in cell signalling and regulation of metabolism. Rodent studies demonstrate that heat treatment, transgenic overexpression and pharmacological induction of HSP72 prevent high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Overexpression of skeletal muscle HSP72 in mice has been shown to increase endurance running capacity nearly twofold and increase mitochondrial content by 50%. A positive correlat...
Published on Mar 1, 2017in Journal of Cellular Physiology4.52
Wakako Tsuchida3
Estimated H-index: 3
(Nagoya University),
Masahiro Iwata5
Estimated H-index: 5
(Nagoya University)
+ 3 AuthorsShigeyuki Suzuki9
Estimated H-index: 9
(Nagoya University)
It is generally recognized that synthetic glucocorticoids induce skeletal muscle weakness, and endogenous glucocorticoid levels increase in patients with muscle atrophy. It is reported that heat stress attenuates glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy; however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Therefore, we examined the mechanisms underlying the effects of heat stress against glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy using C2C12 myotubes in vitro, focusing on expression of key molecules and signa...
Published on Nov 8, 2016in PLOS ONE2.78
Qiongyu Guo10
Estimated H-index: 10
(JHUSOM: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine),
Devin Miller2
Estimated H-index: 2
(JHUSOM: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
+ 5 AuthorsAnand R. Kumar9
Estimated H-index: 9
(JHUSOM: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Hyperthermia therapy has recently emerged as a clinical modality used to finely tune heat stress inside the human body for various biomedical applications. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the optimal timing or temperature of heat stress that is needed to achieve favorable results following hyperthermia therapy for muscle regeneration purposes. The regeneration of skeletal muscle after injury is a highly complex and coordinated process that involves a multitude of cellular mechanisms. The...
Alisha M. Kuhlenhoelter2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Purdue University),
Kyoungrae Kim1
Estimated H-index: 1
(Purdue University)
+ 8 AuthorsTimothy P. Gavin29
Estimated H-index: 29
(Purdue University)
Heat therapy has been shown to promote capillary growth in skeletal muscle and in the heart in several animal models, but the effects of this therapy on angiogenic signaling in humans are unknown. We evaluated the acute effect of lower body heating (LBH) and unilateral thigh heating (TH) on the expression of angiogenic regulators and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in healthy young individuals. Exposure to LBH (n = 18) increased core temperature (Tc) from 36.9 ± 0.1 to 37.4 ± 0.1°C (P < 0.01) and ave...
Published on Jul 1, 2016in Journal of Physiological Sciences3.34
Tsubasa Shibaguchi7
Estimated H-index: 7
(Osaka University),
Takao Sugiura26
Estimated H-index: 26
(Yamaguchi University)
+ 6 AuthorsYoshinobu Ohira34
Estimated H-index: 34
(Dodai: Doshisha University)
The effects of icing or heat stress on the regeneration of injured soleus muscle were investigated in male Wistar rats. Bupivacaine was injected into soleus muscles bilaterally to induce muscle injury. Icing (0 °C, 20 min) was carried out immediately after the injury. Heat stress (42 °C, 30 min) was applied every other day during 2–14 days after the bupivacaine injection. Injury-related increase in collagen deposition was promoted by icing. However, the level of collagen deposition in heat-stres...
Published on May 1, 2016in Physiological Reports
John W. Castellani30
Estimated H-index: 30
,
Edward J. Zambraski14
Estimated H-index: 14
+ 1 AuthorsMaria L. Urso15
Estimated H-index: 15
Hyperthermia is suspected of accentuating skeletal muscle injury from novel exercise, but this has not been well studied. This study examined if high muscle temperatures alters skeletal muscle injury induced by eccentric exercise (ECC). Eight volunteers (age, 22.5 ± 4.1 year; height, 169.5 ± 10.8 cm; body mass, 76.2 ± 12.6 kg), serving as their own control, and who were not heat acclimatized, completed two elbow flexor ECC trials; in one trial the biceps were heated >40°C (HEAT) and in the other...
Published on Jun 20, 2015in Asian journal of sports medicine
Peanchai Khamwong3
Estimated H-index: 3
(CMU: Chiang Mai University),
Aatit Paungmali6
Estimated H-index: 6
(CMU: Chiang Mai University)
+ 1 AuthorsLeonard Joseph5
Estimated H-index: 5
(UKM: National University of Malaysia)
Background: High-intensity of exercise or unaccustomed eccentric exercise can cause the phenomenon of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage (EIMD) which usually results in cramps, muscle strain, impaired muscle function and delayed-onset muscle soreness.
Published on Jun 2, 2015in Journal of Athletic Training2.25
John P. Vardiman5
Estimated H-index: 5
(KU: University of Kansas),
Nicole Moodie2
Estimated H-index: 2
(Rockhurst University)
+ 3 AuthorsPhilip M. Gallagher21
Estimated H-index: 21
(KU: University of Kansas)
Context: Various modalities have been used to pretreat skeletal muscle to attenuate inflammation. Objective: To determine the effects of short-wave diathermy (SWD) preheating treatment on inflammation and stress markers after eccentric exercise. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University laboratory setting. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen male (age = 22 ± 4.9 years, height = 179.75 ± 9.56 cm, mass = 82.22 ± 12.67 kg) college-aged students. Intervention(s): Seven participant...
Cited By5
Newest
Published on Mar 4, 2019in Cogent Medicine
Thomas Reichel , Martin Mitnacht + 3 AuthorsKai Fehske3
Estimated H-index: 3
AbstractThe aim of this study was the analysis of incidence and type of injury in German elite powerlifters. A total of n = 57 competitive athletes of the German powerlifting federation completed a retrospective survey regarding acute and overuse injuries.With 224 total injuries, a mean incidence of 1.51 per 1.000 h or 0.49 per year was calculated. Most injuries affected the lower back (20.5%), elbow (11.2%), pelvic region (10.3) and the shoulder (9.8%). Regarding the type of injury acute inflam...
Published on Mar 1, 2019in Sportverletzung-sportschaden0.65
Rafael Heiss3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Christoph Lutter4
Estimated H-index: 4
+ 7 AuthorsThilo Hotfiel4
Estimated H-index: 4
Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) describes an entity of ultrastructural muscle damage. The manifestation of DOMS is caused by eccentric muscle contractions or unaccustomed forms of exercise. Clinical signs include impaired muscular force capacities, painful restriction of movement, stiffness, swelling, and altered biomechanics in adjacent joints. Although DOMS is categorised as a mild type of muscle damage, it is one of the most common reasons for compromised sportive performance. In the las...
Published on Jan 1, 2019in Journal of drug assessment
M. Vitali3
Estimated H-index: 3
,
Nadim Naim Rodriguez (Geneva College)+ 4 AuthorsFraschini Gianfranco
AbstractObjective: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) in combination with the dietary supplement Tendisulfur Forte in the treatment of shoulder tendinopathy, lateral epicondylitis, and Achilles tendinopathy.Methods: Patients were sub-divided for each pathology into two equal sized groups of 15: one treated with ESWT supplemented with Tendisulfur Forte, and the other treated with ESWT only. Shoulder functionality was measured throug...
Published on Jan 1, 2019
Skeletal muscle injuries are an important concern in sports. For anyindividual who is physically active, there is a possibility of sustainingan injury. While some injuries, such as an ankle sprain or fracture, aredifficult to prevent, many other injuries are preventable. Exercises beforestarting sports activities have been used as an important strategy. Warm-up is intended to improve muscle’s dynamics so that it is less inclined to injury and prepare the athlete for the demands on exercise.
View next paperACUTE EXERCISE-INDUCED MUSCLE INJURY