β Cell-Specific Deletion of the IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Impairs β Cell Proliferation and Insulin Secretion
Summary Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is elevated in the circulation during obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) but is decreased in islets from patients with T2D. The protective role of local IL-1Ra was investigated in pancreatic islet β cell (βIL-1Ra)-specific versus myeloid-cell (myeloIL-1Ra)-specific IL-1Ra knockout (KO) mice. Deletion of IL-1Ra in β cells, but not in myeloid cells, resulted in diminished islet IL-1Ra expression. Myeloid cells were not the main source of circulating IL-1Ra in obesity. βIL-1Ra KO mice had impaired insulin secretion, reduced β cell proliferation, and decreased expression of islet proliferation genes, along with impaired glucose tolerance. The key cell-cycle regulator E2F1 partly reversed IL-1β-mediated inhibition of potassium channel Kir6.2 expression and rescued impaired insulin secretion in IL-1Ra knockout islets. Our findings provide evidence for the importance of β cell-derived IL-1Ra for the local defense of β cells to maintain normal function and proliferation.