The importance of particle motion to fishes and invertebrates
Published on Jan 1, 2018in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America1.819
· DOI :10.1121/1.5021594
This paper considers the importance of particle motion to fishes and invertebrates and the steps that need to be taken to improve knowledge of its effects. It is aimed at scientists investigating the impacts of sounds on fishes and invertebrates but it is also relevant to regulators, those preparing environmental impact assessments, and to industries creating underwater sounds. The overall aim of this paper is to ensure that proper attention is paid to particle motion as a stimulus when evaluating the effects of sound upon aquatic life. Directions are suggested for future research and planning that, if implemented, will provide a better scientific basis for dealing with the impact of underwater sounds on marine ecosystems and for regulating those human activities that generate such sounds. The paper includes background material on underwater acoustics, focusing on particle motion; the importance of particle motion to fishes and invertebrates; and sound propagation through both water and the substrate. Con...