Match!

Emissions and production penalties/bonuses associated with non-standard earthmoving loading policies

Published on Feb 8, 2018in Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management
路 DOI :10.1108/CI-05-2017-0047
David G. Carmichael15
Estimated H-index: 15
(UNSW: University of New South Wales),
Nur Kamaliah Mustaffa2
Estimated H-index: 2
(UNSW: University of New South Wales)
Abstract
Purpose The performance of earthmoving operations, in terms of emissions, production and cost, is dependent on many variables and has been the study of a number of publications. Such publications look at typical operation design and management, without establishing what the penalties or bonuses might be for non-standard, but still observed, practices. To fill this gap in knowledge, this paper examines alternative loading policies of zero waiting-time loading, fractional loading and double-sided loading, and compares the performance of these with standard single-sided loading. Design/methodology/approach Original recursive relationships, that are amenable to Monte Carlo simulation, are derived. Case study data are used to illustrate the emissions, production and cost penalties or bonuses. Findings Double-sided loading contributes the least impact to the environment and is the most cost effective. Zero waiting-time loading performs the worst in terms of environmental impact and cost. Minimizing truck waiting times through using fractional loading is generally not an attractive policy because it leads to an increase in unit emissions and unit costs. The consequences of adopting fractional loading are detailed. Optimum unit emissions and optimum unit cost are coincident with respect to fleet size for single- and double-sided loading policies. That is, by minimizing unit cost, as in traditional practice, then least impact on the environment is obtained. Not minimizing unit cost will lead to unnecessary emissions. Practical implications The results of this paper will be of interest to those designing and managing earthmoving operations. Originality/value All modeling and results presented in the paper do not exist elsewhere in the literature.
  • References (31)
  • Citations (2)
馃摉 Papers frequently viewed together
2015
3 Authors (Mariana Panaitescu, ..., I-A Anton)
2005
1 Author (Peter Berling)
7 Citations
78% of Scinapse members use related papers. After signing in, all features are FREE.
References31
Newest
#1Ali Soofastaei (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 4
#2Saiied M. Aminossadati (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 20
Last. Peter Knights (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 12
view all 4 authors...
The data collected from haul truck payload management systems at various surface mines show that the payload variance is significant and must be considered in analysing the mine productivity, diesel energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and associated costs. The aim of this study is to determine the energy and cost saving opportunities for truck haulage operations associated with the payload variance in surface mines. The results indicate that there is a non-linear relationship between th...
13 CitationsSource
#1Ali Soofastaei (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 4
#2Saiied M. Aminossadati (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 20
Last. Peter Knights (UQ: University of Queensland)H-Index: 12
view all 4 authors...
Data collected from truck payload management systems at various surface mines shows that the payload variance is significant and must be considered in analysing the mine productivity, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and associated cost. Payload variance causes significant differences in gross vehicle weights. Heavily loaded trucks travel slower up ramps than lightly loaded trucks. Faster trucks are slowed by the presence of slower trucks, resulting in 鈥榖unching鈥, production losses a...
12 CitationsSource
#1Daniel Jukic (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 1
#2David G. CarmichaelH-Index: 15
Purpose 鈥 It is postulated that operator-dependent factors have a substantial impact on the fuel consumption and emissions of heavy-duty construction vehicles, such that by adopting different operator practices, savings in fuel used and lower emissions and costs can be achieved. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to examine the emission and cost effects of a driver-training programme aimed at fuel efficiency and construction truck operators. Design/methodology/approach 鈥 A study was condu...
5 CitationsSource
#1Alireza S. Kaboli (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 5
#2David G. Carmichael (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 15
Earthmoving equipment is a large generator of emissions. Accordingly, it is important to understand the underlying parameters affecting performance, in order to operate the equipment in the most emissions-efficient way. The paper aims to provide an original examination of the truck-oriented earthmoving parameters of haul grade, payload and truck type and their little known influence on fuel use and emissions. Observed field data 鈥 on fuel use, payloads and cycle times from four different earthmo...
4 CitationsSource
#1Salvatore Peralta (McGill University)H-Index: 1
#2Agus P. Sasmito (McGill University)H-Index: 22
Last. Mustafa Kumral (McGill University)H-Index: 6
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Mineral commodity prices have decreased swiftly since 2012. For example, gold price, which was above 1800 per ounce, is currently about 250 per ounce. Price slumps were even more severe in the base metals. Furthermore, the resource degradation and complex geologic conditions give rise to operation costs. As a result, many mining operations and development projects were eventually suspended, cancelled or ceased. Environmental compliance is also another challenge to the mining industry...
11 CitationsSource
#1Phil Lewis (OSU: Oklahoma State University鈥揝tillwater)H-Index: 3
#2Heni Fitriani (Sriwijaya University)H-Index: 2
Last. Inggrid Arocho (OSU: Oregon State University)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Heavy-duty diesel maintenance equipment consumes significant amounts of fuel and consequently emits substantial quantities of pollutants. The purpose of this study was to identify which engine activity variables had the greatest impact on fuel use and emissions rates. A real-world data set was used for a case study fleet containing backhoes, motor graders, and wheel loaders. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationships between engine activity variables and fuel use and emissio...
7 CitationsSource
#1Alireza S. Kaboli (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 5
#2David G. Carmichael (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 15
Scrapers are commonly used in road construction, site formation, other earthmoving and surface mining operations. It is known that loading a scraper to capacity may not be best in terms of unit operational cost, because the load-growth curve for a scraper is nonlinear 鈥 the loading rate decreases with load time. However, there is no published research considering the effect of load time and fleet size on unit emissions, and what the corresponding optimal load time and fleet size might be. This p...
6 CitationsSource
#1Alireza S. Kaboli (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 5
#2David G. Carmichael (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 15
Purpose 鈥 The dispatching of trucks in earthmoving and like operations is worthy of examination because of potential emission reductions and savings through the appropriate allocation of trucks to excavators and dump sites. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach 鈥 Truck dispatching is performed through linear programming (LP) and the effect of truck allocation on unit emissions and unit costs established. Number of trucks, unit cost and unit emissions are all considere...
8 CitationsSource
#1Hong Zhang (ZJU: Zhejiang University)H-Index: 1
#2Dong Zhai (ZJU: Zhejiang University)H-Index: 1
Last. Ying Nan Yang (ZJU: Zhejiang University)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Construction processes may produce environmental pollutions, such as noise and emissions of greenhouse gas and air pollutants that are studied in the paper, and estimation of them is essential to planning the construction process regarding pollution-reduction. Based on the calculating models developed from the EPA NONROAD model and the noise theory, a discrete-event simulation method is developed to estimate the emissions and noise by reflecting the uncertainty, randomness and dynamics in constr...
20 CitationsSource
#1Christina N. Burt (University of Melbourne)H-Index: 5
#2Lou Caccetta (Curtin University)H-Index: 10
One of the challenging problems for surface mining operation optimization is choosing the optimal truck and loader fleet. We refer to this problem as the equipment selection problem ESP. In this paper, we describe the ESP in the context of surface mining and discuss related problems and applications. Within the scope of both the ESP and related problems, we outline modeling and solution approaches. Using operations research literature as a guide, we conclude by pointing to future research direct...
24 CitationsSource
Cited By2
Newest
Source
#1Cynthia WangH-Index: 3
Last. Xin NingH-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
The location of temporary facilities in a construction project and the entire site layout plan directly affect project objectives such as time, labor cost, and material transportation and handling. The layout of construction sites also affects entrainment factors such as energy consumption, carbon footprints, and overall construction operation productivity. While site layout planning has been intensively investigated from a project objectives perspective, there have been very few studies of ener...
1 CitationsSource
#1Samad M. E. Sepasgozar (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 6
#2Heng LiH-Index: 63
Last. Vivian W. Y Tam (USYD: University of Sydney)H-Index: 45
view all 4 authors...
The paper reviews the existing applications of sensing technologies for measuring construction off-road vehicle emissions (COVE) such as earthmoving equipment. The current literature presented different measurement methods and reported the results of utilisation of new technologies for measuring COVE. However, previous papers used different technology applications covering only a part of the monitoring process with its own limitations. Since technologies are advancing and offering novel solution...
2 CitationsSource
#1David G. Carmichael (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 15
#2Xuesong Shen (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 6
Last. Vachara Peansupap (Chula: Chulalongkorn University)H-Index: 9
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Attitudes in the construction industry towards emissions and cleaner production are mixed. Many in the industry do not measure their emissions, or show awareness or progress towards minimizing emissions, but rather focus on more traditional matters of time, cost and production. Some writers suggest cost, or an industry perception of extra cost, as a main barrier to implementing more sustainable practices. There has been a slow shift to a sustainability mindset, but commonly this shift i...
2 CitationsSource